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A/B Testing
Test campaign run on two different versions of a landing page to determine the most efficient. Half of the traffic is directed to version A, the other half to version B. The results of each version are then compared.

Website profiles.

Advertizing cost of sale in the context of an Amazon PPC campaign. This is a performance indicator that represents the amount of your advertising expense incurred to achieve sales. ACOS = Amazon PPC / turnover.

A set of actions aimed at encouraging consumers to make a purchase.

Ad clicks
Number of user clicks on a banner or ad as measured from the original page.

Advanced segments
Filter data according to certain criteria.

It’s the advertising solution offered by Google. In short, AdWords allow you to buy visibility on certain keywords. When searching on Google, depending on the search context AdWords adds links to your site to the search results. These advertising links are indicated by the mention “Commercial links” in the SERPs. Billing is done by the number of clicks made by Internet users. The price of the click is put up for auction (on average from 0.10 € to 1 € but this price varies according to the demand for the word).

From french (Association pour le maintien d’une agriculture paysanne): partnership between a group of consumers and a local farm, governing the regular distribution of crops in the form of “baskets”.

AMP : Accelerated Mobile Page
It is a page format on the mobile web. It is there to accelerate the display on mobile websites.

Amazon Marketing Services was the collective term for Sponsored Products, Headline Search Ads (HSA, now Amazon Sponsored Brands), and Amazon Display Ads.
In contrast to the impression-based Amazon Advertising Platform (AAP), Amazon AMS tools were Cost-Per-Click. The platform that hosted these products was also called Amazon AMS.  The new name is Amazon Advertising.

Amazon Retail Analytics (ARA) Premium is an add-on suite of additional reports which Vendors have access to through Vendor Central.

ASIN : Amazon Standard Identification Number
It is a code that is used to identify and group products, it is also used to find products more quickly in the catalog and protects against counterfeiting.

Average basket
Average values in Euro spent per transaction. Average weekly sales Total sales / number of stores

Amazon Vendor Services ( AVS ) is Amazon’s vendor-funded support service. Formerly known as the SVS (Strategic Vendor Services) program, or having a “Brand Specialist”, the program gives you a semi-dedicated headcount inside Amazon to help you manage your business.

American company owned by the Amazon group providing cloud computing services on an on-demand platform with the same name.

Back of aisle
All the products available for sale in a point of sale and which are not the object of a promotion or a highlighting.

Backlinks are external hyperlinks that lead to your site. Their role, their position and their contents are predominant in the positioning and visibility of your site.

Addiction to social networks which is illustrated by constantly consulting and updating news feeds and publications.

Black Hat
All questionable SEO practices (the dark side of the force), including spamdexing, cloaking, etc. In contrast, we call ethical practices white hat. If Google “blacklists” you, this means that following “black hat” actions, your pages have been removed from the search results.

Bot, GoogleBot, Spider
A Bot is a robot in the computer sense of the term, that is to say a program developed to analyse the content of web pages, to classify, index and rate them. These are the bots that populate the search engine databases. On the contrary, the directories are based solely on manual registrations. Bots are able to follow links on a page and therefore index content that has not been submitted by its creator.

Bounce rate
Number of visitors leaving a website after only visiting one page. If your page has a high bounce rate, something in it drives visitors away. This does not apply the same to all sites: for example, in the case of a blog, a large amount of information is present on a single page. The duration of the visit is also to be taken into account.

Brand building
The process of creating a brand or improving customer’s knowledge or opinion of it.

Action of working on its own brand image
How to find a Brandsplace product?

All products sold on the Brandplace are marked “sold and shipped by” followed by the seller’s name. You can find this information in the product data sheet by clicking on “Learn more”, or at the checkout stage of your shopping cart.

Who are the vendors offered on the Brandplace?
Sellers are professionals carefully selected according to criteria such as:

  • The speed and reliability of their delivery: Deliveries between 48h and 72h worked (except for out of stock deliveries) once your order has been validated by the seller.
  • The quality and prices of the products offered: A selection made by Veepee experts according to the category of products offered.
  • The quality of their customer service: Our vendors are subject to continuous evaluation. Non-compliance with one or more of these commitments may result in a seller being dereferred.

Brick and Mortar
Company that has only physical points of sale (as opposed to pure players).

Commercial action consisting in selling two or more complementary products together (a camera with a lens for instance).

Calculating the CTR
CTR = number of clicks / number of impressions x 100.

Call-To-Action (CTA)
Formulation (often as a button) urging the reader to take more or less immediate action sought by the advertiser.

The action of limiting, for a given period, the number of insertions of an advertisement on a support site. A capping of 4 over 24 hours for a banner means that it will only be displayed four times for each visitor during a full day. IAB definition: Capping = frequency x format x duration x location.

Category Manager.

Charge returned to a means of payment after successfully disputing an item.

Checkout counter
Low shelving located in front of the cashier containing products whose sales you want to increase.

Chilled food
Food that is stored at refrigeration temperature.

Attrition rate, the proportion of customers lost by a brand over a given period.

Click & Collect
Service allowing consumers to order online and then collect their item at a nearby store.

Climate pledge
The Climate Pledge is a commitment from Amazon to be net zero carbon across its business by 2040, 10 years ahead of the Paris Agreement.

Cloaking means presenting a different page content based on the customer. This Black Hat type of technique is often used to provide content to optimize search engines (User-agent ID or IP address).

French National Commission of Informatics and Liberties.

Cognitive Bias
Distortion in a reasoning leading the individual to an erroneous conclusion.

Confirmation Bias
The tendency of an individual to favor information that supports his or her pre-existing beliefs and ideas.

Contenu A+
An Amazon program that enhances the product detail page through visuals and marketing content, with the goal of bringing an hesitant customer to buy the product.

Contenu A+ Premium
A similar program to Amazon’s A+ Content but offers additional features designed to enhance the shopping experience.

Convenience Store
Hyperproximity shops generally offering many services.

Action carried out on a site according to the objective of the site (Example: subscribe to a newsletter, consult more than 3 pages during a visit, buy a product online).

Conversion funnel
The Internet user’s journey before performing a conversion action on a website.

Conversion rate
Proportion of purchases on a given website compared to the number of visitors.

Small text file stored on the user’s computer. In Web Analytics, it stores internet traffic sources as well as other non-nominative information. Placed during a research on the hard drive of the connected computer by the site server or a third party authorized by the site, it collects and stores data on browsing behavior from the connected computer.

The main Amazon website.

Factual compensation provided by the distributor for a discount line on a contract or on a non-contractual basis (for example: x promotional activity, x reference in the assortment).

Number of target individuals having been in contact at least once with one or more medium of the advertising campaign. Most commonly the word coverage is used when there is at least 1 contact and it is expressed in thousands or in%. (In% of a target, we also speak of penetration).

CPA “Cost per action”
Fee charged by Publisher each time they bring you a user who performs action on your site. An action can be a purchase, a subscription to a newsletter or other. Note that commissions can be fixed or variable.

CPC “Cost per click”
One click often meaning one visitor – fee charged by the Publisher you for each click on your advertising medium (banner, link, others).

CPL “Cost per lead”
Business model similar to CPA. It means that a fee is charged paid for each connection (lead generation), regardless of the final outcome.

CPM “Cost per thousand impressions”.
The Publisher will publish your campaign and each time your ad is viewed 1,000 times, it will charge you for one CPM unit.

CRM “Customer Relationship Management”
The combination of technologies and strategies used to measure and evaluate customer interactions with the company.

Cross media
Coordinated use of the various media in an editorial or advertising manner, often considered to be a “tailor-made special operation”, the objective of which is to allow the consumer to be reached at the right time, as effectively as possible.

Cross selling
The action of offering complementary products to the product viewed / purchased.

CSV Comma Separated Values.
File format whose information is separated by a comma or else.

CTR (Click Trough Rate)
The ratio of the number of times a page or element is clicked on to the number of views.

Consumer unit.

Custom report
Report containing only the information the user needs.

Custom variable
Custom additional segments to apply to visitors.

Customer acquisition cost
Average investment made to obtain a new customer.

Marketing strategy that goes beyond targeting (which is aimed at segments) and consists of adapting the offer, the promise and/or the content to each consumer according to his affinities.

In French head of regional sales.

Date of minimum durability
“best before” date. Date until which a foodstuff retains specific qualities.

Behavioral philosophy aimed at reducing the volume of spending and/or the share of manufactured and transformed products purchased.

A “direct” is the common term used to refer to a direct message sent through instagram.

Like search engines, directories are used to give you access to information, however directories are only powered by manual registration actions. This allows precise control of the information published but does not allow an investigation on the web as do the bot engines. Let us quote the famous DMoz directory which serves as a referential base for Google in addition to its spiders.

Refers to the display of advertising on the Internet with the purchase of space using graphic or visual elements. Different formats are available.

Distance selling
The act of selling a good without face-to-face contact.

DMP “Data Management Platforms”
Systems used by companies for collecting and organizing user data and information in order to cluster and analyse them, thus optimizing advertising investments.

Digitally Native Vertical Brand: a brand that, for its launch, chooses to distribute its products exclusively on the Internet.

Acronym standing for Digital Out of Home. This term is used to describe external digital advertisement. The DOOH includes, among others, urban digital signage techniques and indoor digital signage in shopping centers or airports for example. At the end of 2020, DOOH accounted for approximately 10% of European outdoor advertising investment and 20% in France.

Drive (click and collect)
Qualifies take-away sales in the world of mass distribution but also in the restaurant business such as the famous Mac Donald’s Mc Drive. This sales technique is equivalent to ordering on the Internet and picking up your purchases at a given time slot.

Drop shipping
Inventory management technique consisting in letting suppliers manage shipments.

Duplicate Content
We speak of Duplicate Content when two separate URLs lead to the same content. This practice is penalized by search engines that see it as a way to fake and exaggerate information display data and artificially inflate its importance.

EAN “European Article Number”
A GS1 barcode.

EDI : Electronic Data Interchange
A data transaction using standardized networks and formats.

Everyday Low Price: a strategy of offering low prices every day and limiting its promotional operations.

Company specialized in the analysis and interpretation of shopper data.

Engagement rate
Percentage of people who have seen and responded to, shared, clicked, or commented on a post.

Study of the relationships between humans and their environment. As far as we’re concerned, it’s about improving the web interface.

Enterprise Resource Planning.

The process of instantly verifying the veracity of facts and figures presented by the media or public figures.

Frustration Free Packaging. One of Amazon’s requirements for packaging. it is designed so as not to include plastic shells, closures with threads or laces and other superfluous packaging elements; it is extremely easy to open and 100% recyclable.

A brand’s flagship store, which serves as its showcase.

Fast Moving Consumer Goods (Consumer packaged good).

Food rate
Ratio expressing the market share of the brand (or distributor) among the brand’s (or distributor’s) consumer customers.

Food superstore
Large hypermarkets selling all types of goods (especially food). They are usually located outside city centers, away from other shops.

Fresh self-service
Fresh self-service (FLS in French).

Acronym for File Transfer Protocol. Allows the exchange of files between two computers.

Actions carried out from the moment an order is placed: logistics, customer service …

Full-funnel marketing approach
Reaching potential consumers according to where they fall into the funnel.

Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Microsoft, considered the “Internet giants”.

Purchasing group of E. Leclerc: the company is in charge of coordinating and implementing the commercial and marketing policy of the brand at the service of E. Leclerc centers, by referencing and negotiating the commercial conditions for all the stores.

Game theory
Branch of mathematics that models the behavior, strategies and interactions of interdependent economic agents.

General Data Protection Regulation – It aims to strengthen the rights of EU citizens in terms of data processing and harmonize legislation on data protection in all EU Member States.

General contractor
A person or company having the overall operational responsibility of a construction or plant engineering project.

Hypermarkets and supermarkets in French.

Value added linked to the brand, corresponding to the difference in price of one of its products compared to the average standard product not bearing the said brand.

Google Analytics
Solution proposed by Google to measure the traffic statistics of a site and measure its audience. Google Analytics works by adding a JavaScript Length of pages that you want to audit. It allows to know the keywords used to access your pages, number of visits, geolocation of users, etc.

Google Bombing
A technique that uses Google’s indexing process to influence search results. Google (among other parameters) determines the relevance of a result by the presence of certain expressions and the amount of times it comes up in websites and hyperlinks. In order to successfully Google bomb, you need to convince many webmasters as possible to put on their websites the same link containing the same expression to a the same webpage.

Google Dance
It defines the periodic change of position of websites in the SERPs which made the sites “dance” from one position to another. The positioning used to be monthly, but it is now almost in real time. All that remains of this “dance” is the page ranking.

A non-profit association dedicated to the development and implementation of world standards and solutions to increase the efficiency and visibility of supply and demand constraints across various sectors and worldwide.

Specialty superstore, specialist superstore (in French).

Rapid analysis from incomplete knowledge, allowing to draw as quickly as possible plausible conclusions that can sometimes turn out to be wrong.

Promotion on a theme that involves significant communication, relevant discounts. The implementation of highlights operations responds to a particular need (e.g. need to generate sales on a specific product), to the commercial calendar (e.g. sales periods / end of year festivities…) but also to run an existing campaign. For this type of device, we are therefore looking for incremental volume in relation to the objectives set on a red thread.


Hypermarkets and supermarkets.

Protocol for securing a flow via SSL, for example when making a payment.

Inbound Marketing
Inbound marketing is the marketing strategy which aims to bring costumers towards you rather than with reaching them with traditional outbound marketing techniques.

A profound representation or belief that acts as a deterrent or motivator to a purchase.

Communication between softwares without restrictions.

Data company that analyzes Carrefour’s data, launched by former EMNOS consultants.

Information Resources, Incorporated is a data analytics and market research company.

All the elements of an experience that generate dissatisfaction to the customer.

It is a work method that encourages the breakdown of work into small tasks. The principle is as follows: a team can only take on a new task once its current tasks have been completed. Among other things, this improves the fluidity of processes in many areas. The objective is to establish constant and orderly operational flows. Kanban can be combined with other agile methods, such as scrum.

Market research institute.

Key account management (KAM) a form of marketing organization that provides special assistance to particularly important customers (key accounts).

Words and expressions that allow Internet users to find your site via a search (SERP). The choice and positioning of these keywords is therefore the major element in the implementation of your communication and visibility strategy on the internet.

Key Performance Indicators are used to measure the impact of an action followed by a model defined in advance.

large-scale distribution
Retail system based on a network of supermarkets and other various intermediaries.

Potential buyer of a given product or service.

Lead scoring
The practice of calculating and assigning a score to the prospects of the company. The purpose of this operation is to better understand the prospects’ potential, degree of interest in the product / service or their position in the purchasing cycle. The score is used to select targets, establish contact priorities and personalize the marketing action.

Length of aisle given to a product and by extension the aisle itself.

Long Tail
(or Long Tail) is a statistical concept that appears in distributions. The tail symbolizes the amortization of the Gaussian curve (or bell curve) of the statistical distributions. Applied to SEO, it highlights, for example, that many keywords each generating a single visit should not be overlooked in favor of one keyword generating a lot of visits. The sum of the weak keywords can often lead to more visits than a single strong keyword. It is a fact that the star selling products on Amazon site represent a much smaller sales quota than the sum of all the less selling product.

Lump Sum
Fixed fee in negotiations.

Mail-order selling
Retail system where the customer orders usually from a catalogue and the goods are shipper directly to them.

Market Basket Analysis
Analysis of products purchased by a customer and relations between them to determine marketing strategies.

Market place
A space where vendors and buyers can meet, e.g., eBay.

Market share
Used in value (turnover) or volume (number of products sold), it describes the size of a product, brand or store in proportion to its market.

Techniques for setting up aisles and displaying products.

NAM : National Account Manager or KAM (key account Manager)
He negotiates with retailers, he is in charge of developing the company’s brands by negotiating the price of the products, the assortment or even the promotions with the medium and large stores.

Natural referencing
Synonym for SEO – technique for the optimization of the webpages of a site in order to obtain the best positions in the natural results of the search engines.

It’s creating, positioning and exchanging links. Netlinking plays a preponderant role in natural referencing but also in shadier practices like Google Bombing. A good Netlinking would be for example a Webmaster exchanging links with complementary sites having a high PageRank or TrustRank index.

Niche Market
Very segmented market with little potential in terms of volume.

Nielsen Holdings plc is a global measurement and data analytics company providing a complete vision of the world on consumers and markets.

(Offre de remboursement) Refund offer: partial or total deferred rebate granted to consumers who request it, based on proof of purchase.

Outdoor advertising, a type of advertising that reaches potential customers while they are outside their homes.

Open Source
Software whose code is accessible and redistributable. I might be downloaded for free.

The act of voluntarily subscribing to a mailing list. -active opt-in: the internet user must voluntarily check a box (or scroll through a drop-down menu) so that the data can be used subsequently for commercial purposes. – passive opt-in: a box is already pre-checked (or a drop-down menu already present) on the affirmative answer.

Opt-in, opt-out
Methods of collecting personal data from Internet users.

Action which consists in unsubscribing from a mailing list. – active opt-out: the internet user must check a box (or select a drop-down menu) so as not to receive a message later. – The passive opt-out: when registering or subscribing to a service, the Internet user is automatically registered without having the opportunity to change his choice. He can only unsubscribe later.

Organic traffic
Indicator of the number of visitors opening a website from search engines.

Pages per visit
Number of pages viewed in succession, i.e., during the same visit session.

Number of pages viewed over a given period.

Paid referencing
Technique that involves the purchase of sponsored links on search engines, social networks or websites with a large audience in order to make advertisements visible to users who are likely to be interested.

Paid traffic
The action of paying search engines to show a website in specific areas of the SERP.

Product Information Management – processes and technologies for managing information describing products as seen by the customers.

Private Lable.

Distribution of buyer cohorts according to their purchase volume: small/medium/large (petit moyen grand).

Carrefour’s automated preparation platform for individual orders, which delivers the dirve, pedestrian drive. There are 4 of them in France in October 2020.

PR Sculpting
It’s the optimization of the ranking juice. One of the main parameters in the calculation of the ranking of a page is the presence of links and relevance, hence the idea to favor some over others.

Price cut
The action of reducing a price.

Price Drop
Significant difference (and dissuasive if increasing) between the price of a product and the average price in its category.

Pricing strategy. Dynamic Pricing: policy of adjusting prices according to changes in demand or competitors’ prices.

Rules defined for displaying a website report.

Project management
The application of skills, know-how, methods and processes to achieve specific objectives.

Potential Client.

In the context of a promotional game or contest, the provision refers to the entirety of the prizes to win.

Pure Player
100% online company connecting supply and demand, employing a reduced staff.

Qualiopi is a certification awarded by the French government to training providers. It ensures the quality of the training distributed.

In social media lingo, reach is the number of users a publication can reach.

Reassurance messaging
The act of reassuring a potential buyer in order to overcome their hesitation.

Red thread
Communication line throughout the year without highlighting a specific commercial offer (examples: on the automotive sector, possibility of communicating on all models without a commercial offer or in retail, possibility of highlighting all products without a specific promotion). The interest of this type of communication is mainly to maintain a continuous presence on the Internet, and therefore to maintain a share of voice against competitors in the same sector.

indicates the result in absolute or percentage terms of a promotional or sales operation.

Traffic coming from a third-party site (partners, directory, etc.).

Referring sites
Sites referring to another site.

RegEx (Regular Expression)
Computer script for isolating regular subsets.

Responsive design
The responsive web design includes Internet content design techniques to offer self-adaptive content based on what interface is used by the visitor.

(reseller): retail actor.

It is an advertising practice which consists in targeting an individual who has visited a website without making a purchase or converting to the brand.

Return On Advertising Spend – tool used to evaluate the effectiveness of digital marketing campaigns by linking costs and revenues.

Acronym for Return On Investment. It’s the return rate any action. If you hear remarks such as: “No point in wasting time on that keyword, the ROI would be too low”, it means that the investment would not be profitable.

Research Online, Purchase Offline: online research activity before visiting a store.

Retail service provider.

RTM: Route to Market
Document detailing the goal(s) to be achieved. It usually includes the timeline, principles, and values to be respected.

Software as a Service is a concept consisting in providing services or computer software through the Web.

SCA Leclerc
The E.Leclerc centers are supplied in a compulsory way, by central buying groups distributed by geographical zones, there are sixteen of them (Scacentre, Scanormandie, Scachap, Scarmor, Socamil, Scaso, Socara, Scalandes, Scaouest, Scapest, Scapartois, Scapalsace, Socamaine, Scadif, Lecasud, Scapnor).

Ability of a site to withstand the increasing load of visitor traffic.

Script Asynchrone
JavaScript function installed and executed in the HTML header of a page. The Asynchronous scripts enable faster page loading.

It is a way of applying agile thinking by giving importance to teamwork and iterative product progression. Its goal is to deliver new features regularly, every two to four weeks. Scrum can be associated with other agile methods such as Kanban

Search engine
It is a tool that automatically references web pages on the Internet using a program called spider or robot.

Sub-set of statistical data.

Step of a marketing strategy that consists in breaking down a target population into homogeneous and addressable groups.

Acronym for Search Engine Marketing, i.e. Sponsored Links.

Acronym for Search Engine Optimisation. This acronym is commonly used to speak of referencing or positioning.

Acronym for Search Engine Result Page. Better to be included in the top positions!

Session Duration
Amount of time spent on each page of a website.

Price comparison robots.

Someone who shops, synonym for client.

Activity of locating a product in store before ordering online.

Silos Organisation
It is used to describe the isolation occurring between employees or department within a company.

Ships In Own Container. One of Amazon’s requirements for packaging. According to the rule, any item must be shippable without additional packaging.

SKU: Stock Keeping Unit
It is a unique code that is assigned to a product in order to identify it and track inventory.


Literally “indexing spam”, spamdexing corresponds to a set of Black Hat techniques intended to deceive search engines in order to unfairly obtain a good positioning. These include among other cloaking, misuse of doorway pages, etc.

The action to send bulk sending unwanted emails.

Unlawful appropriation of IP address.

Subscribe and save
Renewed delivery of a selected product for a given period on Amazon. The site offers a reduction for the use of this service on 5 different products.

Media investment/total of sales.

it is an element used to gather data about a website, such as on-site behavior It is inserted into the source code of the page.

Tagging plan
Operation of organizing, structuring, and naming all e-marketing campaigns for optimal consistency Web Analytics data reports.

Selection of the population segments to which a product will be addressed.

Science of grouping and organizing products into categories according to different criteria.

Technology RFID
Used for the first time during the Second World War for aircraft recognition, RFID, Radio Frequency Identification finds new applications. This solution allows traceability of the remote transmission of information contained in products and articles by using a chip and a radio antenna.

Testing phase
Testing a website before launching it online.

Thank You Page
Page generated when a visitor fills out a form on a web page.

Actions intended to measure the profile of the visitor to a site, his journey, their centers of interest, their origin in the network, etc. in order to offer custom content.

Traffic source
Site from which the user comes before visiting another site.

Indicator of the number of visits to a website.

Up selling
Attempt to sell a product from a higher range than the product viewed or purchased.

New name of Vente Privée.

It was a free application that allowed users to create short videos called vines.

Site consultation session (sequence pages viewed on a site).

The Voice Over Internet Protocol allows telephone calls to be transmitted over the Internet. The voice is transformed into digital signals and routed in data packets to the recipient.

A temporary or permanent waiver request to the banks.

Web service
Application allowing data exchange via XML.

White Hat
Set of good SEO practices for increasing the visibility for spiders (or bot) of page information.

File format, formatted using tags (e.g. data).

Amazon lexicon. Selling 1P means selling TO Amazon ,  you can use Vendor central Plateform and the products are “Ships from and sold by”. Selling 3P means selling ON the marketplace , you use Seller central platform. If you choose Amazon’s 3P model, you maintain control of your products and your pricing. You decide if you are going to fulfill your products through Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA), Fulfillment by Merchant (FBM), or Seller Fulfilled Prime (SFP). If you choose FBA, Amazon takes care of picking, packing, shipping, and returns.