Glossary

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A/B Testing
Test campaign run on two different versions of a landing page to determine the most efficient. Half of the traffic is directed to version A, the other half to version B. The results of each version are then compared.

Abundance
These are additional allocations to the CPF hours granted to access a training course (leading to a qualification, certification or diploma) for which the hours acquired are insufficient.

Account
Website profiles.

ACOS
Advertizing cost of sale in the context of an Amazon PPC campaign. This is a performance indicator that represents the amount of your advertising expense incurred to achieve sales. ACOS = Amazon PPC / turnover.

Activation
A set of actions aimed at encouraging consumers to make a purchase.

Activity declaration
Formality that any natural or legal person carrying out professional training services must carry out with the Directions Régionales des Entreprises, de la Concurrence, de la Consommation, du Travail et de l’Emploi (DIRECCTE).

Ad clicks
Number of user clicks on a banner or ad as measured from the original page.

Advanced segments
Filter data according to certain criteria.

Adwords
It’s the advertising solution offered by Google. In short, AdWords allow you to buy visibility on certain keywords. When searching on Google, depending on the search context AdWords adds links to your site to the search results. These advertising links are indicated by the mention “Commercial links” in the SERPs. Billing is done by the number of clicks made by Internet users. The price of the click is put up for auction (on average from 0.10 € to 1 € but this price varies according to the demand for the word).

AFDAS
Afdas is a skills operator (OPCO) in the sectors of culture, creative industries, media, communication, telecommunications, sports, tourism, leisure and entertainment. Its five main missions are: to support the development of work-study programs / to support companies in the development of training, particularly very small businesses / to support professional branches in the development of certifications and job observation / to support economic change / to develop access to training for specific groups (intermittent workers in the entertainment industry, artists-authors).

AKTO
AKTO is the skills operator for labor-intensive services. It acts for the development of work-study programs, sustainable employment and the construction of professional paths. It supports the performance of companies by reinforcing the increase in skills and qualification of employees. It enhances the attractiveness of professions and jobs in metropolitan France and the French overseas territories. It is at the heart of the synergies between the players in vocational training.

AMAP
From french (Association pour le maintien d’une agriculture paysanne): partnership between a group of consumers and a local farm, governing the regular distribution of crops in the form of “baskets”.

AMP : Accelerated Mobile Page
It is a page format on the mobile web. It is there to accelerate the display on mobile websites.

AMS
Amazon Marketing Services was the collective term for Sponsored Products, Headline Search Ads (HSA, now Amazon Sponsored Brands), and Amazon Display Ads.
In contrast to the impression-based Amazon Advertising Platform (AAP), Amazon AMS tools were Cost-Per-Click. The platform that hosted these products was also called Amazon AMS.  The new name is Amazon Advertising.

Ancillary  Costs
Transportation, accommodation and catering costs related to the training provided. To be distinguished from educational costs.

APE
The APE code makes it possible to determine whether a company falls within the scope of application of a convention or collective agreement or within the field of competence of an OPCA.

ARAP
Amazon Retail Analytics (ARA) Premium is an add-on suite of additional reports which Vendors have access to through Vendor Central.

ASIN : Amazon Standard Identification Number
It is a code that is used to identify and group products, it is also used to find products more quickly in the catalog and protects against counterfeiting.

Atlas
Atlas is the skills operator for companies and employees in the financial services and consulting sectors. It was born out of the Professional Future law which deeply transforms the organization of professional training.

Average basket
Average values in Euro spent per transaction. Average weekly sales Total sales / number of stores

AVS
Amazon Vendor Services ( AVS ) is Amazon’s vendor-funded support service. Formerly known as the SVS (Strategic Vendor Services) program, or having a “Brand Specialist”, the program gives you a semi-dedicated headcount inside Amazon to help you manage your business.

AWS
American company owned by the Amazon group providing cloud computing services on an on-demand platform with the same name.

Back of aisle
All the products available for sale in a point of sale and which are not the object of a promotion or a highlighting.

Backlink
Backlinks are external hyperlinks that lead to your site. Their role, their position and their contents are predominant in the positioning and visibility of your site.

Binge-scrolling
Addiction to social networks which is illustrated by constantly consulting and updating news feeds and publications.

Black Hat
All questionable SEO practices (the dark side of the force), including spamdexing, cloaking, etc. In contrast, we call ethical practices white hat. If Google “blacklists” you, this means that following “black hat” actions, your pages have been removed from the search results.

Bot, GoogleBot, Spider
A Bot is a robot in the computer sense of the term, that is to say a program developed to analyse the content of web pages, to classify, index and rate them. These are the bots that populate the search engine databases. On the contrary, the directories are based solely on manual registrations. Bots are able to follow links on a page and therefore index content that has not been submitted by its creator.

Bounce rate
Number of visitors leaving a website after only visiting one page. If your page has a high bounce rate, something in it drives visitors away. This does not apply the same to all sites: for example, in the case of a blog, a large amount of information is present on a single page. The duration of the visit is also to be taken into account.

Brand building
The process of creating a brand or improving customer’s knowledge or opinion of it.

Branding
Action of working on its own brand image
How to find a Brandsplace product?

Brandplace
All products sold on the Brandplace are marked “sold and shipped by” followed by the seller’s name. You can find this information in the product data sheet by clicking on “Learn more”, or at the checkout stage of your shopping cart.

Who are the vendors offered on the Brandplace?
Sellers are professionals carefully selected according to criteria such as:

  • The speed and reliability of their delivery: Deliveries between 48h and 72h worked (except for out of stock deliveries) once your order has been validated by the seller.
  • The quality and prices of the products offered: A selection made by Veepee experts according to the category of products offered.
  • The quality of their customer service: Our vendors are subject to continuous evaluation. Non-compliance with one or more of these commitments may result in a seller being dereferred.

Brick and Mortar
Company that has only physical points of sale (as opposed to pure players).

Bundle/Pack
Commercial action consisting in selling two or more complementary products together (a camera with a lens for instance).

Calculating the CTR
CTR = number of clicks / number of impressions x 100.

Call-To-Action (CTA)
Formulation (often as a button) urging the reader to take more or less immediate action sought by the advertiser.

Capping
The action of limiting, for a given period, the number of insertions of an advertisement on a support site. A capping of 4 over 24 hours for a banner means that it will only be displayed four times for each visitor during a full day. IAB definition: Capping = frequency x format x duration x location.

Catman
Category Manager.

CARIF/OREF
The CARIF (Centres d’Animation, de Recherche et d’Information sur la Formation) – Observatoires Régionaux de l’Emploi et de la Formation (OREF) are present in each region and constitute a network of operators in contact with social partners and vocational training stakeholders. Financed by the State and the regions within the framework of the State-Region Project Contracts (CPER), they inform regional players about the training offer, legislation, training regulations, occupations, sectors of activity, integration and the European dimension of training.

Categories
Categories of the skills development plan. The rules relating to the Plan require a distinction to be made between two categories of training actions, defined according to the objective to be achieved:Actions to adapt the employee to the job or linked to the evolution of the job or to maintaining the employee in the companyActions to develop skills.

Categorization
Categorization of the skills development plan. The rules relating to the Plan require a distinction to be made between two categories of training actions, defined according to the objective to be achieved: Actions to adapt the employee to the job or linked to the evolution of the job or to the maintenance of the employee in the company Actions for the development of skills.

CEP
Professional development council. The CEP is a support tool for the development of professional development projects. The CEP is a free service offered to all active people (employees, job seekers…). It allows you to build a training project, improve your qualifications, and secure your career path.”

Certification
Official validation of professional mastery, professional certification has one objective: to attest that a person has the skills, knowledge and know-how necessary to perform professional activities. Professional certification thus constitutes a “benchmark” on the job market and a means of making the skills acquired by an individual legible and visible.

Certification of completion of training
The training certificate is one of the documents to be given to the trainee at the end of any professional training action. This document validates the acquisition of knowledge by the trainee.

Certification training
A training course is said to lead to certification when it leads to a certificate listed in the inventory of the CNCP (Commission Nationale de la Certification Professionnelle), a diploma, a professional title or a Certificate of Professional Qualification (CQP/CQPI).

Chargeback
Charge returned to a means of payment after successfully disputing an item.

Checkout counter
Low shelving located in front of the cashier containing products whose sales you want to increase.

Chilled food
Food that is stored at refrigeration temperature.

Churn
Attrition rate, the proportion of customers lost by a brand over a given period.

Click & Collect
Service allowing consumers to order online and then collect their item at a nearby store.

Climate pledge
The Climate Pledge is a commitment from Amazon to be net zero carbon across its business by 2040, 10 years ahead of the Paris Agreement.

Cloaking
Cloaking means presenting a different page content based on the customer. This Black Hat type of technique is often used to provide content to optimize search engines (User-agent ID or IP address).

CNIL
French National Commission of Informatics and Liberties.

Cognitive Bias
Distortion in a reasoning leading the individual to an erroneous conclusion.

Confirmation Bias
The tendency of an individual to favor information that supports his or her pre-existing beliefs and ideas.

Constructys
Constructys is an operator of competences of the Construction industry at the service of companies and employees of the Building, the Building Materials Trade, the Wood Trade and the Public Works.

Contenu A+
An Amazon program that enhances the product detail page through visuals and marketing content, with the goal of bringing an hesitant customer to buy the product.

Contenu A+ Premium
A similar program to Amazon’s A+ Content but offers additional features designed to enhance the shopping experience.

Convenience Store
Hyperproximity shops generally offering many services.

Conversion
Action carried out on a site according to the objective of the site (Example: subscribe to a newsletter, consult more than 3 pages during a visit, buy a product online).

Conversion funnel
The Internet user’s journey before performing a conversion action on a website.

Conversion rate
Proportion of purchases on a given website compared to the number of visitors.

Cookie
Small text file stored on the user’s computer. In Web Analytics, it stores internet traffic sources as well as other non-nominative information. Placed during a research on the hard drive of the connected computer by the site server or a third party authorized by the site, it collects and stores data on browsing behavior from the connected computer.

Core
The main Amazon website.

Counterpart
Factual compensation provided by the distributor for a discount line on a contract or on a non-contractual basis (for example: x promotional activity, x reference in the assortment).

Coverage
Number of target individuals having been in contact at least once with one or more medium of the advertising campaign. Most commonly the word coverage is used when there is at least 1 contact and it is expressed in thousands or in%. (In% of a target, we also speak of penetration).

CPA “Cost per action”
Fee charged by Publisher each time they bring you a user who performs action on your site. An action can be a purchase, a subscription to a newsletter or other. Note that commissions can be fixed or variable.

CPA “Personal Activity Account”
The personal activity account is an account opened for each person. It contributes to the right to professional qualification and allows for the recognition of civic commitment. From the age of 16, you are entitled to a CPA that allows you to consult and use your acquired rights.

CPC “Cost per click”
One click often meaning one visitor – fee charged by the Publisher you for each click on your advertising medium (banner, link, others).

CPF “Personal training account”
This account can be used throughout one’s working life to accumulate a sum of money to follow certain training courses during or outside working hours.

CPL “Cost per lead”
Business model similar to CPA. It means that a fee is charged paid for each connection (lead generation), regardless of the final outcome.

CPM “Cost per thousand impressions”.
The Publisher will publish your campaign and each time your ad is viewed 1,000 times, it will charge you for one CPM unit.

CQP “Certification of Professional Qualification”
Created and delivered by the professional branches, the qualification certifications (CQP) are part of the official certifications, like the diploma and the professional title. It is a way of recognizing a person’s ability to carry out activities and his or her mastery of knowledge and know-how in a given field.

CRM “Customer Relationship Management”
The combination of technologies and strategies used to measure and evaluate customer interactions with the company.

Cross media
Coordinated use of the various media in an editorial or advertising manner, often considered to be a “tailor-made special operation”, the objective of which is to allow the consumer to be reached at the right time, as effectively as possible.

Cross selling
The action of offering complementary products to the product viewed / purchased.

CSP “Contract for Professional Securization”
A mandatory contract offered by the employer (in companies with fewer than 1,000 employees or in receivership or liquidation) to employees laid off for economic reasons, the CSP ensures their rapid reclassification into a sustainable job.

CSV Comma Separated Values.
File format whose information is separated by a comma or else.

CTR (Click Trough Rate)
The ratio of the number of times a page or element is clicked on to the number of views.

CU
Consumer unit.

Custom report
Report containing only the information the user needs.

Custom variable
Custom additional segments to apply to visitors.

Customer acquisition cost
Average investment made to obtain a new customer

Customization
Marketing strategy that goes beyond targeting (which is aimed at segments) and consists of adapting the offer, the promise and/or the content to each consumer according to his affinities.

CVR
In French head of regional sales.

Datadock
In order to simplify the referencing of training organizations, the professional training funders have created a unique and mutualized platform. It allows training organizations to enter data and evidence to certify their compliance. The objective is to improve the transparency of the training offer and, thus, to allow companies to have qualitative benchmarks to facilitate the search for the training organizations that best meet their needs.

Date of minimum durability
“best before” date. Date until which a foodstuff retains specific qualities.

Deconsumerization
Behavioral philosophy aimed at reducing the volume of spending and/or the share of manufactured and transformed products purchased.

Delegation of payment (or subrogation)
Contract signed between a training organization and an OPCA that allows direct payment of educational costs to the training organization without the company advancing funds.

Direct
A “direct” is the common term used to refer to a direct message sent through instagram.

Direccte
The Regional Directorates for Business, Competition, Consumption, Labor and Employment (DIRECCTE) are a single point of contact for companies, in charge of all aspects of their activity. Their mission is to support the development of companies and to promote their competitiveness, employment and skills, while ensuring the conditions and compliance with labor regulations and ensuring fair markets and consumer safety.

Directory
Like search engines, directories are used to give you access to information, however directories are only powered by manual registration actions. This allows precise control of the information published but does not allow an investigation on the web as do the bot engines. Let us quote the famous DMoz directory which serves as a referential base for Google in addition to its spiders.

Display
Refers to the display of advertising on the Internet with the purchase of space using graphic or visual elements. Different formats are available.

Distance selling
The act of selling a good without face-to-face contact.

DMP “Data Management Platforms”
Systems used by companies for collecting and organizing user data and information in order to cluster and analyse them, thus optimizing advertising investments.

DNVB
Digitally Native Vertical Brand: a brand that, for its launch, chooses to distribute its products exclusively on the Internet.

DOOH
Acronym standing for Digital Out of Home. This term is used to describe external digital advertisement. The DOOH includes, among others, urban digital signage techniques and indoor digital signage in shopping centers or airports for example. At the end of 2020, DOOH accounted for approximately 10% of European outdoor advertising investment and 20% in France.

Drive (click and collect)
Qualifies take-away sales in the world of mass distribution but also in the restaurant business such as the famous Mac Donald’s Mc Drive. This sales technique is equivalent to ordering on the Internet and picking up your purchases at a given time slot.

Drop shipping
Inventory management technique consisting in letting suppliers manage shipments.

Duplicate Content
We speak of Duplicate Content when two separate URLs lead to the same content. This practice is penalized by search engines that see it as a way to fake and exaggerate information display data and artificially inflate its importance.

EAN “European Article Number”
A GS1 barcode.

EDI : Electronic Data Interchange
A data transaction using standardized networks and formats.

EDLP
Everyday Low Price: a strategy of offering low prices every day and limiting its promotional operations.

Educational costs
Costs related to support, evaluation and training.

Eligibility (for OPCO)
The OPCO defines the conditions of eligibility of the actions for the different financing and the criteria for the payment of training costs. In addition to respecting the different categories of training actions provided for by the French Labor Code (art. L.6313-1) and the legal definition of training action (art. L.6353-1), the OPCO determines the quality requirements that the actions it finances must meet.

EMNOS
Company specialized in the analysis and interpretation of shopper data.

Engagement rate
Percentage of people who have seen and responded to, shared, clicked, or commented on a post.

Ergonomics
Study of the relationships between humans and their environment. As far as we’re concerned, it’s about improving the web interface.

ERP
Enterprise Resource Planning.

Fact-checking
The process of instantly verifying the veracity of facts and figures presented by the media or public figures.

FFP
Frustration Free Packaging. One of Amazon’s requirements for packaging. it is designed so as not to include plastic shells, closures with threads or laces and other superfluous packaging elements; it is extremely easy to open and 100% recyclable.

Flagship
A brand’s flagship store, which serves as its showcase.

FMCG/CPG
Fast Moving Consumer Goods (Consumer packaged good).

Foad
Open and Distance Learning. Training in which all or part of the teaching is provided at a distance, allowing each trainee to progress at his or her own pace (correspondence courses, e-learning, blended-learning, etc.).

Food rate
Ratio expressing the market share of the brand (or distributor) among the brand’s (or distributor’s) consumer customers.

Food superstore
Large hypermarkets selling all types of goods (especially food). They are usually located outside city centers, away from other shops.

Fresh self-service
Fresh self-service (FLS in French).

FTP
Acronym for File Transfer Protocol. Allows the exchange of files between two computers.

Fulfilment
Actions carried out from the moment an order is placed: logistics, customer service …

Full-funnel marketing approach
Reaching potential consumers according to where they fall into the funnel.

GAFAM
Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Microsoft, considered the “Internet giants”.

Galec
Purchasing group of E. Leclerc: the company is in charge of coordinating and implementing the commercial and marketing policy of the brand at the service of E. Leclerc centers, by referencing and negotiating the commercial conditions for all the stores.

Game theory
Branch of mathematics that models the behavior, strategies and interactions of interdependent economic agents.

GDPR
General Data Protection Regulation – It aims to strengthen the rights of EU citizens in terms of data processing and harmonize legislation on data protection in all EU Member States.

General contractor
A person or company having the overall operational responsibility of a construction or plant engineering project.

GMS
Hypermarkets and supermarkets in French.

Goodwill
Value added linked to the brand, corresponding to the difference in price of one of its products compared to the average standard product not bearing the said brand.

Google Analytics
Solution proposed by Google to measure the traffic statistics of a site and measure its audience. Google Analytics works by adding a JavaScript Length of pages that you want to audit. It allows to know the keywords used to access your pages, number of visits, geolocation of users, etc.

Google Bombing
A technique that uses Google’s indexing process to influence search results. Google (among other parameters) determines the relevance of a result by the presence of certain expressions and the amount of times it comes up in websites and hyperlinks. In order to successfully Google bomb, you need to convince many webmasters as possible to put on their websites the same link containing the same expression to a the same webpage.

Google Dance
It defines the periodic change of position of websites in the SERPs which made the sites “dance” from one position to another. The positioning used to be monthly, but it is now almost in real time. All that remains of this “dance” is the page ranking.

GS1
A non-profit association dedicated to the development and implementation of world standards and solutions to increase the efficiency and visibility of supply and demand constraints across various sectors and worldwide.

GSS
Specialty superstore, specialist superstore (in French).

Heuristics
Rapid analysis from incomplete knowledge, allowing to draw as quickly as possible plausible conclusions that can sometimes turn out to be wrong.

Highlights
Promotion on a theme that involves significant communication, relevant discounts. The implementation of highlights operations responds to a particular need (e.g. need to generate sales on a specific product), to the commercial calendar (e.g. sales periods / end of year festivities…) but also to run an existing campaign. For this type of device, we are therefore looking for incremental volume in relation to the objectives set on a red thread.

HM
Hypermarkets.

HMSM
Hypermarkets and supermarkets.

HTTPS
Protocol for securing a flow via SSL, for example when making a payment.

Inbound Marketing
Inbound marketing is the marketing strategy which aims to bring costumers towards you rather than with reaching them with traditional outbound marketing techniques.

Initial training
The initial training, which takes place during the school year, is aimed at people who do not yet have any professional experience.

Insight
A profound representation or belief that acts as a deterrent or motivator to a purchase.

Inter
Training in group courses.

Interoperability
Communication between softwares without restrictions.

IntheMemory
Data company that analyzes Carrefour’s data, launched by former EMNOS consultants.

Intra
Customized training.

IRI
Information Resources, Incorporated is a data analytics and market research company.

Irritant
All the elements of an experience that generate dissatisfaction to the customer.

Job interview
Every two years, every employer, regardless of the size of the company, must organize a professional interview devoted to the employee’s professional development prospects, particularly in terms of qualifications and employment. Every six years, the employer must carry out a summary assessment of the employee’s career path, during which he or she must ensure that the employee has benefited from the professional interviews and take stock of what is required by law: training, certification and salary or career progression.

Kanban
It is a work method that encourages the breakdown of work into small tasks. The principle is as follows: a team can only take on a new task once its current tasks have been completed. Among other things, this improves the fluidity of processes in many areas. The objective is to establish constant and orderly operational flows. Kanban can be combined with other agile methods, such as scrum.

Kantar
Market research institute.

KAM
Key account management (KAM) a form of marketing organization that provides special assistance to particularly important customers (key accounts).

Keyword
Words and expressions that allow Internet users to find your site via a search (SERP). The choice and positioning of these keywords is therefore the major element in the implementation of your communication and visibility strategy on the internet.

Knowledge and skills base
All of the knowledge, know-how and skills that an individual must master in order to gain access to vocational training and enter the world of work. This knowledge and skills are useful in the social, civic and cultural life of the individual.

KPI
Key Performance Indicators are used to measure the impact of an action followed by a model defined in advance.

large-scale distribution
Retail system based on a network of supermarkets and other various intermediaries.

Lead
Potential buyer of a given product or service.

Lead scoring
The practice of calculating and assigning a score to the prospects of the company. The purpose of this operation is to better understand the prospects’ potential, degree of interest in the product / service or their position in the purchasing cycle. The score is used to select targets, establish contact priorities and personalize the marketing action.

Liberatory receipt
The receipt in full discharge of liability attests to the training contributions paid by the company to the OPCO. It is issued by the OPCO: to be kept by the company as proof of payment of contributions in the event of an audit.

Linear
Length of aisle given to a product and by extension the aisle itself.

Long Tail
(or Long Tail) is a statistical concept that appears in distributions. The tail symbolizes the amortization of the Gaussian curve (or bell curve) of the statistical distributions. Applied to SEO, it highlights, for example, that many keywords each generating a single visit should not be overlooked in favor of one keyword generating a lot of visits. The sum of the weak keywords can often lead to more visits than a single strong keyword. It is a fact that the star selling products on Amazon site represent a much smaller sales quota than the sum of all the less selling product.

Lump Sum
Fixed fee in negotiations.

Mail-order selling
Retail system where the customer orders usually from a catalogue and the goods are shipper directly to them.

Market Basket Analysis
Analysis of products purchased by a customer and relations between them to determine marketing strategies.

Market place
A space where vendors and buyers can meet, e.g., eBay.

Market share
Used in value (turnover) or volume (number of products sold), it describes the size of a product, brand or store in proportion to its market.

Merchandising
Techniques for setting up aisles and displaying products.

NAM : National Account Manager or KAM (key account Manager)
He negotiates with retailers, he is in charge of developing the company’s brands by negotiating the price of the products, the assortment or even the promotions with the medium and large stores.

Natural referencing
Synonym for SEO – technique for the optimization of the webpages of a site in order to obtain the best positions in the natural results of the search engines.

Netlinking
It’s creating, positioning and exchanging links. Netlinking plays a preponderant role in natural referencing but also in shadier practices like Google Bombing. A good Netlinking would be for example a Webmaster exchanging links with complementary sites having a high PageRank or TrustRank index.

Niche Market
Very segmented market with little potential in terms of volume.

Nielsen
Nielsen Holdings plc is a global measurement and data analytics company providing a complete vision of the world on consumers and markets.

OCAPIAT
Ocapiat is the Operator of Competences (OPCO) for the Agricultural Cooperation, the Agriculture, the Fishing, the Food-processing Industry and the Territories.

ODR
(Offre de remboursement) Refund offer: partial or total deferred rebate granted to consumers who request it, based on proof of purchase.

OOH
Outdoor advertising, a type of advertising that reaches potential customers while they are outside their homes.

OPCO
Opérateur de Compétences. The OPCOs have replaced the OPCAs since April 1, 2019 and provide funding for apprenticeship contracts, provide technical support to the branches to help them implement certifications, and support small and medium-sized enterprises in training. Since April 1, 2019, 11 skills operators (OPCOs), into which 329 professional branches are divided, have replaced the 20 approved parity collecting operators (OPCAs).

OPCO 2I
OPCO 2i is the inter-industry skills operator. It brings together 32 branches divided into 11 Joint Professional Sections (SPP):

  • Energy and Energy Services
  • Chemicals
  • Petroleum
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Plastics, Nautical and Composites
  • Paper and Cardboard
  • Furniture, Wood, Toys and Childcare
  • Materials for construction and industry, Glass
  • Metallurgy and Recycling
  • Rubber
  • Creative and technical industries, Fashion and Luxury

OPCO EP
The skills operator (OPCO) for local companies has been approved on the basis of the constitutive agreement signed by the inter-professional employers’ organizations U2P and CPME and the five employee trade union confederations (CFDT, CFE-CGC, CFTC, CGT, CGT-FO). It relies on the skills and know-how of the network of OPCA PEPSS/ACTALIANS and AGEFOS PME and is deployed throughout France (including DROM). The OPCO of the Proximity Companies covers the companies entering the field of application of 54 professional branches as well as the companies which do not come under a National Collective Agreement (CCN) or a national agreement of branch on the training, whose principal activity falls under the field of intervention of the OPCO.
It covers various fields of activity:

  • Craft industry
  • Liberal professions
  • Local services

A common point: PROXIMITY

OPCO Mobilités
OPCO Mobilités is the skills operator for the mobility sector, mandated by the social partners of 22 branches and RATP to implement and apply their training and GPEC policies.

OPCO Santé
The OPCO Santé is intended to bring together the common professions in the health, social and medico-social sectors.

OPcommerce
Opcommerce is the “Alternance-Compétences” partner of companies in the commerce sector, i.e. 19 professional branches. Approved by the State, it accompanies, in proximity, the performance of companies, contributes to the professional evolution of employees and favors the professional integration of young people in the commerce sector thanks to work-study training (apprenticeship contract and professionalization contract).

Open Source
Software whose code is accessible and redistributable. I might be downloaded for free.

Opt-in
The act of voluntarily subscribing to a mailing list. -active opt-in: the internet user must voluntarily check a box (or scroll through a drop-down menu) so that the data can be used subsequently for commercial purposes. – passive opt-in: a box is already pre-checked (or a drop-down menu already present) on the affirmative answer.

Opt-in, opt-out
Methods of collecting personal data from Internet users.

Opt-out
Action which consists in unsubscribing from a mailing list. – active opt-out: the internet user must check a box (or select a drop-down menu) so as not to receive a message later. – The passive opt-out: when registering or subscribing to a service, the Internet user is automatically registered without having the opportunity to change his choice. He can only unsubscribe later.

Organic
Traffic from search engines. The value of the medium is: Organic.

Organic traffic
Indicator of the number of visitors opening a website from search engines.

Pages per visit
Number of pages viewed in succession, i.e., during the same visit session.

Pageview
Number of pages viewed over a given period.

Paid referencing
Technique that involves the purchase of sponsored links on search engines, social networks or websites with a large audience in order to make advertisements visible to users who are likely to be interested.

Paid traffic
The action of paying search engines to show a website in specific areas of the SERP.

PIM
Product Information Management – processes and technologies for managing information describing products as seen by the customers.

PL
Private Lable.

PMG
Distribution of buyer cohorts according to their purchase volume: small/medium/large (petit moyen grand).

PPC
Carrefour’s automated preparation platform for individual orders, which delivers the dirve, pedestrian drive. There are 4 of them in France in October 2020.

PR Sculpting
It’s the optimization of the ranking juice. One of the main parameters in the calculation of the ranking of a page is the presence of links and relevance, hence the idea to favor some over others.

Price cut
The action of reducing a price.

Price Drop
Significant difference (and dissuasive if increasing) between the price of a product and the average price in its category.

Pricing
Pricing strategy. Dynamic Pricing: policy of adjusting prices according to changes in demand or competitors’ prices.

Profil
Rules defined for displaying a website report.

Professional branch
Sector of activity, the scope of which is defined by a collective agreement. In a professional branch, an OPCA can be designated to receive the funds relating to the participation in the professional training of companies.

Project management
The application of skills, know-how, methods and processes to achieve specific objectives.

Prospect/Lead
Potential Client.

Provision
In the context of a promotional game or contest, the provision refers to the entirety of the prizes to win.

Pure Player
100% online company connecting supply and demand, employing a reduced staff.

Qualification
The recognition of a professional qualification implies one of the following three modalities:

  • Registration in the RNCP (Répertoire National des Certifications Professionnelles)
  • Mention in a classification of a national collective agreement (CCN) of the branch
  • Registration on a list drawn up by the National Joint Commission for Employment and Vocational Training (CPNEFP) of a professional branch

Qualiopi
Qualiopi is a certification awarded by the French government to training providers. It ensures the quality of the training distributed.

Reach
In social media lingo, reach is the number of users a publication can reach.

Reassurance messaging
The act of reassuring a potential buyer in order to overcome their hesitation.

Red thread
Communication line throughout the year without highlighting a specific commercial offer (examples: on the automotive sector, possibility of communicating on all models without a commercial offer or in retail, possibility of highlighting all products without a specific promotion). The interest of this type of communication is mainly to maintain a continuous presence on the Internet, and therefore to maintain a share of voice against competitors in the same sector.

Redeption
indicates the result in absolute or percentage terms of a promotional or sales operation.

Referral
Traffic coming from a third-party site (partners, directory, etc.).

Referring sites
Sites referring to another site.

RegEx (Regular Expression)
Computer script for isolating regular subsets.

Responsive design
The responsive web design includes Internet content design techniques to offer self-adaptive content based on what interface is used by the visitor.

Retailer
(reseller): retail actor.

Retargeting
It is an advertising practice which consists in targeting an individual who has visited a website without making a purchase or converting to the brand.

ROAS
Return On Advertising Spend – tool used to evaluate the effectiveness of digital marketing campaigns by linking costs and revenues.

ROI
Acronym for Return On Investment. It’s the return rate any action. If you hear remarks such as: “No point in wasting time on that keyword, the ROI would be too low”, it means that the investment would not be profitable.

ROPO
Research Online, Purchase Offline: online research activity before visiting a store.

RSP
Retail service provider.

RTM: Route to Market
Document detailing the goal(s) to be achieved. It usually includes the timeline, principles, and values to be respected.

SAAS
Software as a Service is a concept consisting in providing services or computer software through the Web.

SCA Leclerc
The E.Leclerc centers are supplied in a compulsory way, by central buying groups distributed by geographical zones, there are sixteen of them (Scacentre, Scanormandie, Scachap, Scarmor, Socamil, Scaso, Socara, Scalandes, Scaouest, Scapest, Scapartois, Scapalsace, Socamaine, Scadif, Lecasud, Scapnor).

Scalability
Ability of a site to withstand the increasing load of visitor traffic.

Script Asynchrone
JavaScript function installed and executed in the HTML header of a page. The Asynchronous scripts enable faster page loading.

Scrum
It is a way of applying agile thinking by giving importance to teamwork and iterative product progression. Its goal is to deliver new features regularly, every two to four weeks. Scrum can be associated with other agile methods such as Kanban

Search engine
It is a tool that automatically references web pages on the Internet using a program called spider or robot.

Segment
Sub-set of statistical data.

Segmentation
Step of a marketing strategy that consists in breaking down a target population into homogeneous and addressable groups.

SEM
Acronym for Search Engine Marketing, i.e. Sponsored Links.

SEO
Acronym for Search Engine Optimisation. This acronym is commonly used to speak of referencing or positioning.

SERP
Acronym for Search Engine Result Page. Better to be included in the top positions!

Session Duration
Amount of time spent on each page of a website.

Shopbots
Price comparison robots.

Shopper
Someone who shops, synonym for client.

Showrooming
Activity of locating a product in store before ordering online.

Silos Organisation
It is used to describe the isolation occurring between employees or department within a company.

SIOC
Ships In Own Container. One of Amazon’s requirements for packaging. According to the rule, any item must be shippable without additional packaging.

Skills
All the knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills used in the exercise of a trade or professional activity.

Skills assessment
The skills assessment allows the analysis of one’s professional and personal skills, aptitudes and motivations in support of a professional development project and, if necessary, training.

Skills development plan

As of January 1, 2019 the skills development plan replaces the training plan. The plan sets out the actions that a company wishes to implement for its employees. Annual or multi-year, it may include Training Actions, Skills Assessment and/or Validation of Acquired Experience (VAE), corresponding to the needs of the company. In principle, the actions in the plan are carried out during working hours, but under certain conditions they can be implemented “outside working hours”.

SKU: Stock Keeping Unit
It is a unique code that is assigned to a product in order to identify it and track inventory.

SM
Supermarkets.

Spamdexing
Literally “indexing spam”, spamdexing corresponds to a set of Black Hat techniques intended to deceive search engines in order to unfairly obtain a good positioning. These include among other cloaking, misuse of doorway pages, etc.

Spamming
The action to send bulk sending unwanted emails.

Spoofing
Unlawful appropriation of IP address.

Subscribe and save
Renewed delivery of a selected product for a given period on Amazon. The site offers a reduction for the use of this service on 5 different products.

Tacos
Media investment/total of sales.

Tag
it is an element used to gather data about a website, such as on-site behaviour It is inserted into the source code of the page.

Tagging plan
Operation of organizing, structuring and naming all e-marketing campaigns for optimal consistency Web Analytics data reports.

Targeting
Selection of the population segments to which a product will be addressed.

Taxonomy
Science of grouping and organizing products into categories according to different criteria.

Technology RFID
Used for the first time during the Second World War for aircraft recognition, RFID, Radio Frequency Identification finds new applications. This solution allows traceability of the remote transmission of information contained in products and articles by using a chip and a radio antenna.

Testing phase
Testing a website before launching it online.

Thank You Page
Page generated when a visitor fills out a form on a web page.

Tracking
Actions intended to measure the profile of the visitor to a site, his journey, their centers of interest, their origin in the network, etc. in order to offer custom content.

Traffic source
Site from which the user comes before visiting another site.

Trafic
Indicator of the number of visits to a website.

Training contract
Il contratto di formazione è un contratto di diritto privato stipulato tra un’azienda e un ente di formazione per la realizzazione di un corso di formazione; può essere sostituito da un buono d’ordine o da una fattura; rimane obbligatorio per le azioni realizzate nell’ambito del contratto di professionalizzazione ed è fortemente raccomandato per le azioni non standardizzate.

Training organization (or provider)
A training organization, or training provider, is a natural or legal person who provides professional training. The organization must have an activity number issued by the DIRECCTE. This is to be able to establish training agreements allowing to be present on the professional training market.

Uniformation
As a social cohesion OPCO, Uniformation supports those who are committed to supporting people at all stages of their lives: an everyday economy that meets societal needs. Social cohesion is the cement of a society where everyone has a place, where everyone is welcomed, and where everyone can act according to their needs and aspirations. An inclusive vision of society sought by Uniformation’s social partners. 22 professional branches cover this perimeter. Companies, associations, cooperatives, social organizations, foundations, trade unions, political parties, works councils and social and economic committees, religious movements and associations… can all benefit from Uniformation’s services as long as they are not attached to a professional branch hosted by another Opco.

Up selling
Attempt to sell a product from a higher range than the product viewed or purchased.

VAE
Validation of Acquired Experience. A process that allows for the recognition, through an evaluation process, of knowledge and skills acquired during professional or extra-professional experiences (volunteer, union…) in order to obtain a certification (diploma, title for professional purposes, certificate of professional qualification – CQP) registered in the National Directory of Professional Certifications.

VeePee
New name of Vente Privée.

Vine
It was a free application that allowed users to create short videos called vines.

Visit
Site consultation session (sequence pages viewed on a site).

VoIP
The Voice Over Internet Protocol allows telephone calls to be transmitted over the Internet. The voice is transformed into digital signals and routed in data packets to the recipient.

Waiver
A temporary or permanent waiver request to the banks.

Web service
Application allowing data exchange via XML.

White Hat
Set of good SEO practices for increasing the visibility for spiders (or bot) of page information.

XML
File format, formatted using tags (e.g. data).

1P/3P
Amazon lexicon. Selling 1P means selling TO Amazon ,  you can use Vendor central Plateform and the products are “Ships from and sold by Amazon.com”. Selling 3P means selling ON the marketplace , you use Seller central platform. If you choose Amazon’s 3P model, you maintain control of your products and your pricing. You decide if you are going to fulfill your products through Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA), Fulfillment by Merchant (FBM), or Seller Fulfilled Prime (SFP). If you choose FBA, Amazon takes care of picking, packing, shipping, and returns.