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Amazon Advertising.

A/B Testing
Test campaign run on two different versions of a landing page to determine the most efficient. Half of the traffic is directed to version A, the other half to version B. The results of each version are then compared.

These are additional allocations to the CPF hours granted to access a training course (leading to a qualification, certification or diploma) for which the hours acquired are insufficient.

Website profiles.

Advertizing cost of sale in the context of an Amazon PPC campaign. This is a performance indicator that represents the amount of your advertising expense incurred to achieve sales. ACOS = Amazon PPC / turnover.

A set of actions aimed at encouraging consumers to make a purchase.

Activity declaration
Formality that any natural or legal person carrying out professional training services must carry out with the Directions Régionales des Entreprises, de la Concurrence, de la Consommation, du Travail et de l’Emploi (DIRECCTE).

Ad clicks
Number of user clicks on a banner or ad as measured from the original page.

Advanced segments
Filter data according to certain criteria.

It’s the advertising solution offered by Google. In short, AdWords allow you to buy visibility on certain keywords. When searching on Google, depending on the search context AdWords adds links to your site to the search results. These advertising links are indicated by the mention “Commercial links” in the SERPs. Billing is done by the number of clicks made by Internet users. The price of the click is put up for auction (on average from 0.10 € to 1 € but this price varies according to the demand for the word).

Afdas is a skills operator (OPCO) in the sectors of culture, creative industries, media, communication, telecommunications, sports, tourism, leisure and entertainment. Its five main missions are: to support the development of work-study programs / to support companies in the development of training, particularly very small businesses / to support professional branches in the development of certifications and job observation / to support economic change / to develop access to training for specific groups (intermittent workers in the entertainment industry, artists-authors).


Amazon Global Store


Anything In The Buy Box

AKTO is the skills operator for labor-intensive services. It acts for the development of work-study programs, sustainable employment and the construction of professional paths. It supports the performance of companies by reinforcing the increase in skills and qualification of employees. It enhances the attractiveness of professions and jobs in metropolitan France and the French overseas territories. It is at the heart of the synergies between the players in vocational training.

From french (Association pour le maintien d’une agriculture paysanne): partnership between a group of consumers and a local farm, governing the regular distribution of crops in the form of “baskets”.


Amazon Marketing Cloud


Amazon Media Group, now known as Amazon Ads.

AMP : Accelerated Mobile Page
It is a page format on the mobile web. It is there to accelerate the display on mobile websites.

Amazon Marketing Services was the collective term for Sponsored Products, Headline Search Ads (HSA, now Amazon Sponsored Brands), and Amazon Display Ads.
In contrast to the impression-based Amazon Advertising Platform (AAP), Amazon AMS tools were Cost-Per-Click. The platform that hosted these products was also called Amazon AMS.  The new name is Amazon Advertising.




Amazon Logistics


Amazon Carton Content Code. External Container ID to label cartons to be sent to Amazon and generated via Vendor Central.

Ancillary  Costs
Transportation, accommodation and catering costs related to the training provided. To be distinguished from educational costs.

Andon Cord

If customers report a product as dangerous or as repeatedly delivered damaged, customer service representatives will remove a product’s listing from the website until the cause is identified and resolved.

The APE code makes it possible to determine whether a company falls within the scope of application of a convention or collective agreement or within the field of competence of an OPCA.

Application programming interface (API)

Is a way to programmatically access (usually external) models, data sets, or other pieces of software.


Amazon Retail Analytics, often referred to as ARA basic. A data reporting section in Vendor Central that brands can access to analyse their sales and inventory with Amazon.

Amazon Retail Analytics Premium. The advanced reporting section for vendors to analyse customer behaviour and traffic on their product pages.

Artificial intelligence (AI)

Is the ability of software to perform tasks that traditionally require human intelligence.

Artificial neural networks (ANNs)

Are composed of interconnected layers of software-based calculators known as “neurons.” These networks can absorb vast amounts of input data and process that data through multiple layers that extract and learn the data’s features.

ASIN : Amazon Standard Identification Number
It is a code that is used to identify and group products, it is also used to find products more quickly in the catalog and protects against counterfeiting.


Advanced Shipment Notification. A document that notifies Amazon about the time and characteristics of a pending shipment.


Average Selling Price. Calculated by net sales ÷ volume sold.


Add to Cart

Atlas is the skills operator for companies and employees in the financial services and consulting sectors. It was born out of the Professional Future law which deeply transforms the organization of professional training.

Average basket
Average values in Euro spent per transaction. Average weekly sales Total sales / number of stores


Amazon Vendor Service, formerly known as Strategic Vendor Service (SVS). It’s a paid programme that gives vendors access to a dedicated contact to assist with operational matters such as ordering and catalogue.

Amazon Vendor Services ( AVS ) is Amazon’s vendor-funded support service. Formerly known as the SVS (Strategic Vendor Services) program, or having a “Brand Specialist”, the program gives you a semi-dedicated headcount inside Amazon to help you manage your business.

American company owned by the Amazon group providing cloud computing services on an on-demand platform with the same name.


Business to Business


Business to Consumer

Back of aisle
All the products available for sale in a point of sale and which are not the object of a promotion or a highlighting.

Backlinks are external hyperlinks that lead to your site. Their role, their position and their contents are predominant in the positioning and visibility of your site.

BB (Buy box)

Buy Box. Refers to the Amazon product detail page area where customers can choose to add products to their shopping cart.


Best Deal. A type of price discount on Amazon that runs several days or weeks.

Addiction to social networks which is illustrated by constantly consulting and updating news feeds and publications.


Business Industrial & Scientific Supplies. A category on Amazon that targets sales to industrial and scientific customers.

Black Hat
All questionable SEO practices (the dark side of the force), including spamdexing, cloaking, etc. In contrast, we call ethical practices white hat. If Google “blacklists” you, this means that following “black hat” actions, your pages have been removed from the search results.


Buy One Get One. A promotion type for sellers.

Bot, GoogleBot, Spider
A Bot is a robot in the computer sense of the term, that is to say a program developed to analyse the content of web pages, to classify, index and rate them. These are the bots that populate the search engine databases. On the contrary, the directories are based solely on manual registrations. Bots are able to follow links on a page and therefore index content that has not been submitted by its creator.

Bounce rate
Number of visitors leaving a website after only visiting one page. If your page has a high bounce rate, something in it drives visitors away. This does not apply the same to all sites: for example, in the case of a blog, a large amount of information is present on a single page. The duration of the visit is also to be taken into account.

Brand Analytics

Dashboard for brand owners registered with Amazon’s Brand Registry to understand the wider performance of their brand (not account) on the Amazon marketplace.

Brand building
The process of creating a brand or improving customer’s knowledge or opinion of it.

Brand Registry

Programme for brands to verify their brand to access enhanced analytics and brand protection features.

Brand Store

Part of Amazon Advertising. Brands can create a free store, showcasing their products with customisable images, logos and content.

Action of working on its own brand image
How to find a Brandsplace product?

All products sold on the Brandplace are marked “sold and shipped by” followed by the seller’s name. You can find this information in the product data sheet by clicking on “Learn more”, or at the checkout stage of your shopping cart.

Who are the vendors offered on the Brandplace?
Sellers are professionals carefully selected according to criteria such as:

  • The speed and reliability of their delivery: Deliveries between 48h and 72h worked (except for out of stock deliveries) once your order has been validated by the seller.
  • The quality and prices of the products offered: A selection made by Veepee experts according to the category of products offered.
  • The quality of their customer service: Our vendors are subject to continuous evaluation. Non-compliance with one or more of these commitments may result in a seller being dereferred.

Brick and Mortar
Company that has only physical points of sale (as opposed to pure players).

Browse Node

A numerical code to identify an Amazon product category.


Best Seller Rank


Born to Run. A programme that allows vendors to request an initial purchase order for new products from Amazon.


Back to School

Commercial action consisting in selling two or more complementary products together (a camera with a lens for instance).


Buy with Prime. A service that allows brands to sell through their online shop using Amazon’s order processing for end customers.


Compound Annual GRowth Rate

Calculating the CTR
CTR = number of clicks / number of impressions x 100.

Call-To-Action (CTA)
Formulation (often as a button) urging the reader to take more or less immediate action sought by the advertiser.

The action of limiting, for a given period, the number of insertions of an advertisement on a support site. A capping of 4 over 24 hours for a banner means that it will only be displayed four times for each visitor during a full day. IAB definition: Capping = frequency x format x duration x location.

Category Page

A landing page for product groups within the Amazon store. Examples include Home & Furniture, Grocery, Beauty, etc.

Category Manager.

The CARIF (Centres d’Animation, de Recherche et d’Information sur la Formation) – Observatoires Régionaux de l’Emploi et de la Formation (OREF) are present in each region and constitute a network of operators in contact with social partners and vocational training stakeholders. Financed by the State and the regions within the framework of the State-Region Project Contracts (CPER), they inform regional players about the training offer, legislation, training regulations, occupations, sectors of activity, integration and the European dimension of training.

Categories of the skills development plan. The rules relating to the Plan require a distinction to be made between two categories of training actions, defined according to the objective to be achieved:Actions to adapt the employee to the job or linked to the evolution of the job or to maintaining the employee in the companyActions to develop skills.

Categorization of the skills development plan. The rules relating to the Plan require a distinction to be made between two categories of training actions, defined according to the objective to be achieved: Actions to adapt the employee to the job or linked to the evolution of the job or to the maintenance of the employee in the company Actions for the development of skills.

Professional development council. The CEP is a support tool for the development of professional development projects. The CEP is a free service offered to all active people (employees, job seekers…). It allows you to build a training project, improve your qualifications, and secure your career path.”

Official validation of professional mastery, professional certification has one objective: to attest that a person has the skills, knowledge and know-how necessary to perform professional activities. Professional certification thus constitutes a “benchmark” on the job market and a means of making the skills acquired by an individual legible and visible.

Certification of completion of training
The training certificate is one of the documents to be given to the trainee at the end of any professional training action. This document validates the acquisition of knowledge by the trainee.

Certification training
A training course is said to lead to certification when it leads to a certificate listed in the inventory of the CNCP (Commission Nationale de la Certification Professionnelle), a diploma, a professional title or a Certificate of Professional Qualification (CQP/CQPI).

Charge returned to a means of payment after successfully disputing an item.

Checkout counter
Low shelving located in front of the cashier containing products whose sales you want to increase.

Child ASIN

Describes a product listed under a parent ASIN (e.g., chocolate bar). The child ASINs are the variations under this parent ASIN (e.g., dark/white/milk flavour).

Chilled food
Food that is stored at refrigeration temperature.


Amazon’s instant messenger that lets employees and brands meet, chat, and place business calls inside and outside their organisation.

Attrition rate, the proportion of customers lost by a brand over a given period.

Click & Collect
Service allowing consumers to order online and then collect their item at a nearby store.

Climate pledge
The Climate Pledge is a commitment from Amazon to be net zero carbon across its business by 2040, 10 years ahead of the Paris Agreement.

Climate Pledge Friendly

Amazon’s programme to visibly mark eco-friendly and sustainable products on its marketplace.

Cloaking means presenting a different page content based on the customer. This Black Hat type of technique is often used to provide content to optimize search engines (User-agent ID or IP address).


Contribution Margin. The formula: (Average Selling Price – Average Cost per Unit + Contra-COGS – Var. Costs) ÷ Average Selling Price.

French National Commission of Informatics and Liberties.

Cognitive Bias
Distortion in a reasoning leading the individual to an erroneous conclusion.


Costs of Goods Sold. The value of goods sold during a selected time period.


The dollar amount Amazon has refunded to customers.

Confirmation Bias
The tendency of an individual to favor information that supports his or her pre-existing beliefs and ideas.

Constructys is an operator of competences of the Construction industry at the service of companies and employees of the Building, the Building Materials Trade, the Wood Trade and the Public Works.

Contenu A+
An Amazon program that enhances the product detail page through visuals and marketing content, with the goal of bringing an hesitant customer to buy the product.

Contenu A+ Premium
A similar program to Amazon’s A+ Content but offers additional features designed to enhance the shopping experience.

Contra COGS

The money vendors spend with Amazon to offset COGS. Calculated based on the cost price (list price) at which a product is sold to Amazon.

Convenience Store
Hyperproximity shops generally offering many services.

Action carried out on a site according to the objective of the site (Example: subscribe to a newsletter, consult more than 3 pages during a visit, buy a product online).

Conversion funnel
The Internet user’s journey before performing a conversion action on a website.

Conversion rate
Proportion of purchases on a given website compared to the number of visitors.

Small text file stored on the user’s computer. In Web Analytics, it stores internet traffic sources as well as other non-nominative information. Placed during a research on the hard drive of the connected computer by the site server or a third party authorized by the site, it collects and stores data on browsing behavior from the connected computer.

The main Amazon website.

Factual compensation provided by the distributor for a discount line on a contract or on a non-contractual basis (for example: x promotional activity, x reference in the assortment).

Number of target individuals having been in contact at least once with one or more medium of the advertising campaign. Most commonly the word coverage is used when there is at least 1 contact and it is expressed in thousands or in%. (In% of a target, we also speak of penetration).


(also: Vendor Powered Coupon, or VPC)– A type of discount vendors and sellers can offer to customers. Customers redeem the coupons on the product detail page.


Contribution Profit. The dollar value of the Contribution Margin.

CPA “Cost per action”
Fee charged by Publisher each time they bring you a user who performs action on your site. An action can be a purchase, a subscription to a newsletter or other. Note that commissions can be fixed or variable.

CPA “Personal Activity Account”
The personal activity account is an account opened for each person. It contributes to the right to professional qualification and allows for the recognition of civic commitment. From the age of 16, you are entitled to a CPA that allows you to consult and use your acquired rights.

CPC “Cost per click”
One click often meaning one visitor – fee charged by the Publisher you for each click on your advertising medium (banner, link, others).

CPF “Personal training account”
This account can be used throughout one’s working life to accumulate a sum of money to follow certain training courses during or outside working hours.

CPL “Cost per lead”
Business model similar to CPA. It means that a fee is charged paid for each connection (lead generation), regardless of the final outcome.

CPM “Cost per thousand impressions”.
The Publisher will publish your campaign and each time your ad is viewed 1,000 times, it will charge you for one CPM unit.

CQP “Certification of Professional Qualification”
Created and delivered by the professional branches, the qualification certifications (CQP) are part of the official certifications, like the diploma and the professional title. It is a way of recognizing a person’s ability to carry out activities and his or her mastery of knowledge and know-how in a given field.


Cannot Realise Any Profit. Products that got delisted because they are unprofitable to Amazon.

CRM “Customer Relationship Management”
The combination of technologies and strategies used to measure and evaluate customer interactions with the company.

Cross media
Coordinated use of the various media in an editorial or advertising manner, often considered to be a “tailor-made special operation”, the objective of which is to allow the consumer to be reached at the right time, as effectively as possible.

Cross selling
The action of offering complementary products to the product viewed / purchased.


Customer Service


Cost Support Agreement

CSP “Contract for Professional Securization”
A mandatory contract offered by the employer (in companies with fewer than 1,000 employees or in receivership or liquidation) to employees laid off for economic reasons, the CSP ensures their rapid reclassification into a sustainable job.

CSV Comma Separated Values.
File format whose information is separated by a comma or else.

CTR (Click Trough Rate)
The ratio of the number of times a page or element is clicked on to the number of views.

Consumer unit.

Custom report
Report containing only the information the user needs.

Custom variable
Custom additional segments to apply to visitors.

Customer acquisition cost
Average investment made to obtain a new customer

Marketing strategy that goes beyond targeting (which is aimed at segments) and consists of adapting the offer, the promise and/or the content to each consumer according to his affinities.

In French head of regional sales.

In order to simplify the referencing of training organizations, the professional training funders have created a unique and mutualized platform. It allows training organizations to enter data and evidence to certify their compliance. The objective is to improve the transparency of the training offer and, thus, to allow companies to have qualitative benchmarks to facilitate the search for the training organizations that best meet their needs.

Date of minimum durability
“best before” date. Date until which a foodstuff retains specific qualities.

Behavioral philosophy aimed at reducing the volume of spending and/or the share of manufactured and transformed products purchased.

Deep learning

Is a subset of machine learning that uses deep neural networks, which are layers of connected “neurons” whose connections have parameters or weights that can be trained. It is especially effective at learning from unstructured data such as images, text, and audio.

Delegation of payment (or subrogation)
Contract signed between a training organization and an OPCA that allows direct payment of educational costs to the training organization without the company advancing funds.


Direct Fulfilment


Direct Import

A “direct” is the common term used to refer to a direct message sent through instagram.

The Regional Directorates for Business, Competition, Consumption, Labor and Employment (DIRECCTE) are a single point of contact for companies, in charge of all aspects of their activity. Their mission is to support the development of companies and to promote their competitiveness, employment and skills, while ensuring the conditions and compliance with labor regulations and ensuring fair markets and consumer safety.

Like search engines, directories are used to give you access to information, however directories are only powered by manual registration actions. This allows precise control of the information published but does not allow an investigation on the web as do the bot engines. Let us quote the famous DMoz directory which serves as a referential base for Google in addition to its spiders.

Refers to the display of advertising on the Internet with the purchase of space using graphic or visual elements. Different formats are available.

Distance selling
The act of selling a good without face-to-face contact.

DMP “Data Management Platforms”
Systems used by companies for collecting and organizing user data and information in order to cluster and analyse them, thus optimizing advertising investments.

Digitally Native Vertical Brand: a brand that, for its launch, chooses to distribute its products exclusively on the Internet.

Acronym standing for Digital Out of Home. This term is used to describe external digital advertisement. The DOOH includes, among others, urban digital signage techniques and indoor digital signage in shopping centers or airports for example. At the end of 2020, DOOH accounted for approximately 10% of European outdoor advertising investment and 20% in France.


Deal of the Day. A type of promotion for vendors to discount a product for up to 24 hours during key deal events (e.g., Prime Day, Black Friday, Cyber Monday, etc.). Nowadays also known as “Top Deal”.


Detail Page. The product page for an ASIN on Amazon.


Detail Page Views. The number of impressions of a detail page in a selected time period.

Drive (click and collect)
Qualifies take-away sales in the world of mass distribution but also in the restaurant business such as the famous Mac Donald’s Mc Drive. This sales technique is equivalent to ordering on the Internet and picking up your purchases at a given time slot.

Drop shipping
Inventory management technique consisting in letting suppliers manage shipments.


Demand Side Platform. A platform that enables brands to programmatically buy display and video ads.

Duplicate Content
We speak of Duplicate Content when two separate URLs lead to the same content. This practice is penalized by search engines that see it as a way to fake and exaggerate information display data and artificially inflate its importance.

EAN “European Article Number”
A GS1 barcode.

Early and late scenarios

Are the extreme scenarios of our work-automation model. The “earliest” scenario flexes all parameters to the extremes of plausible assumptions, resulting in faster automation development and adoption, and the “latest” scenario flexes all parameters in the opposite direction. The reality is likely to fall somewhere between the two.


Enhanced Brand Content. The seller equivalent of A+ Content that is available to Amazon vendors.


Estimated Delivery Date

EDI : Electronic Data Interchange
Electronic Data Interchange. A method to send digital information between companies, mainly used to receive and process purchasing orders.

Everyday Low Price: a strategy of offering low prices every day and limiting its promotional operations.

Educational costs
Costs related to support, evaluation and training.


European Fulfilment Network. Enables brands to sell across European marketplaces while only delivering to Amazon in their home country.

Eligibility (for OPCO)
The OPCO defines the conditions of eligibility of the actions for the different financing and the criteria for the payment of training costs. In addition to respecting the different categories of training actions provided for by the French Labor Code (art. L.6313-1) and the legal definition of training action (art. L.6353-1), the OPCO determines the quality requirements that the actions it finances must meet.

Company specialized in the analysis and interpretation of shopper data.

Engagement rate
Percentage of people who have seen and responded to, shared, clicked, or commented on a post.


End of Day

Study of the relationships between humans and their environment. As far as we’re concerned, it’s about improving the web interface.

Enterprise Resource Planning.

The process of instantly verifying the veracity of facts and figures presented by the media or public figures.


Fulfilment by Amazon. Programme for 3P sellers who let Amazon handle and ship their products to end customers.


Fulfiled by Merchant. Refers to 3P sellers shipping products directly to the end customer.


Fulfilment Center. Describes Amazon’s warehouses.

Frustration Free Packaging. One of Amazon’s requirements for packaging. it is designed so as not to include plastic shells, closures with threads or laces and other superfluous packaging elements; it is extremely easy to open and 100% recyclable.


Is the process of adapting a pretrained foundation model to perform better in a specific task. This entails a relatively short period of training on a labeled data set, which is much smaller than the data set the model was initially trained on. This additional training allows the model to learn and adapt to the nuances, terminology, and specific patterns found in the smaller data set.

A brand’s flagship store, which serves as its showcase.


Forward-Looking Order Workflow. Amazon purchase orders with a shipping window for a future week for best-selling products.

Fast Moving Consumer Goods (Consumer packaged good).


Fulfillment Network Stock Keeping Unit. Identifies products fulfilled by Amazon.

Open and Distance Learning. Training in which all or part of the teaching is provided at a distance, allowing each trainee to progress at his or her own pace (correspondence courses, e-learning, blended-learning, etc.).


Free on Board. Relates to the Direct Import model with Amazon, under which vendors are responsible for all costs until the goods are on the vessel at the designated port.

Food rate
Ratio expressing the market share of the brand (or distributor) among the brand’s (or distributor’s) consumer customers.

Food superstore
Large hypermarkets selling all types of goods (especially food). They are usually located outside city centers, away from other shops.

Foundation models (FM)

Are deep learning models trained on vast quantities of unstructured, unlabeled data that can be used for a wide range of tasks out of the box or adapted to specific tasks through fine-tuning. Examples of these models are GPT-4, PaLM, DALL·E 2, and Stable Diffusion.

Fresh self-service
Fresh self-service (FLS in French).

Acronym for File Transfer Protocol. Allows the exchange of files between two computers.

Actions carried out from the moment an order is placed: logistics, customer service …

Full-funnel marketing approach
Reaching potential consumers according to where they fall into the funnel.

Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Microsoft, considered the “Internet giants”.

Purchasing group of E. Leclerc: the company is in charge of coordinating and implementing the commercial and marketing policy of the brand at the service of E. Leclerc centers, by referencing and negotiating the commercial conditions for all the stores.

Game theory
Branch of mathematics that models the behavior, strategies and interactions of interdependent economic agents.

Gated Product

Refers to products that are blocked for sale by 3P sellers on the Amazon marketplace.

General Data Protection Regulation – It aims to strengthen the rights of EU citizens in terms of data processing and harmonize legislation on data protection in all EU Member States.

General contractor
A person or company having the overall operational responsibility of a construction or plant engineering project.

Generative AI

Is AI that is typically built using foundation models and has capabilities that earlier AI did not have, such as the ability to generate content. Foundation models can also be used for nongenerative purposes (for example, classifying user sentiment as negative or positive based on call transcripts) while offering significant improvement over earlier models. For simplicity, when we refer to generative AI in this article, we include all foundation model use cases.


General Ledger. Describes the P&L of the main product category (e.g. Home, Consumer Electronics, Beauty, etc.)

Glance Views

Equivalent to the number of impressions of a product detail page.

Hypermarkets and supermarkets in French.


Refers to Amazon’s deals & promotions page.

Value added linked to the brand, corresponding to the difference in price of one of its products compared to the average standard product not bearing the said brand.

Google Analytics
Solution proposed by Google to measure the traffic statistics of a site and measure its audience. Google Analytics works by adding a JavaScript Length of pages that you want to audit. It allows to know the keywords used to access your pages, number of visits, geolocation of users, etc.

Google Bombing
A technique that uses Google’s indexing process to influence search results. Google (among other parameters) determines the relevance of a result by the presence of certain expressions and the amount of times it comes up in websites and hyperlinks. In order to successfully Google bomb, you need to convince many webmasters as possible to put on their websites the same link containing the same expression to a the same webpage.

Google Dance
It defines the periodic change of position of websites in the SERPs which made the sites “dance” from one position to another. The positioning used to be monthly, but it is now almost in real time. All that remains of this “dance” is the page ranking.

Graphics processing units (GPUs)

Are computer chips that were originally developed for producing computer graphics (such as for video games) and are also useful for deep learning applications. In contrast, traditional machine learning and other analyses usually run on central processing units (CPUs), normally referred to as a computer’s “processor.”

A non-profit association dedicated to the development and implementation of world standards and solutions to increase the efficiency and visibility of supply and demand constraints across various sectors and worldwide.

Specialty superstore, specialist superstore (in French).


Global Trade Item Number (GTIN). A 14-digit code that uniquely identifies products, items and services.


Hazardous materials. Refers to highly flammable, toxic or pressurised items that must therefore be handled with special care to protect the health of employees and customers.

Rapid analysis from incomplete knowledge, allowing to draw as quickly as possible plausible conclusions that can sometimes turn out to be wrong.

Promotion on a theme that involves significant communication, relevant discounts. The implementation of highlights operations responds to a particular need (e.g. need to generate sales on a specific product), to the commercial calendar (e.g. sales periods / end of year festivities…) but also to run an existing campaign. For this type of device, we are therefore looking for incremental volume in relation to the objectives set on a red thread.


Hypermarkets and supermarkets.

Protocol for securing a flow via SSL, for example when making a payment.


Item Data Quality. Used to spot product listings with missing titles, bullet points or other content features that need improvement.


Describes the number of views of a product page.

Inbound Marketing
Inbound marketing is the marketing strategy which aims to bring costumers towards you rather than with reaching them with traditional outbound marketing techniques.

Initial training
The initial training, which takes place during the school year, is aimed at people who do not yet have any professional experience.

A profound representation or belief that acts as a deterrent or motivator to a purchase.

Training in group courses.

Communication between softwares without restrictions.

Data company that analyzes Carrefour’s data, launched by former EMNOS consultants.

Customized training.


Intellectual Property

Information Resources, Incorporated is a data analytics and market research company.

All the elements of an experience that generate dissatisfaction to the customer.


International Standard Book Number. A 13-digit number assigned to identify products in a catalogue. Similar to EAN/SKU.


Joint Business Plan. Describes the commercial alignment between Amazon and 1P vendors to review their performance and create a plan for growing their business together over a set period of time.

Job interview
Every two years, every employer, regardless of the size of the company, must organize a professional interview devoted to the employee’s professional development prospects, particularly in terms of qualifications and employment. Every six years, the employer must carry out a summary assessment of the employee’s career path, during which he or she must ensure that the employee has benefited from the professional interviews and take stock of what is required by law: training, certification and salary or career progression.

It is a work method that encourages the breakdown of work into small tasks. The principle is as follows: a team can only take on a new task once its current tasks have been completed. Among other things, this improves the fluidity of processes in many areas. The objective is to establish constant and orderly operational flows. Kanban can be combined with other agile methods, such as scrum.

Market research institute.

Key account management (KAM) a form of marketing organization that provides special assistance to particularly important customers (key accounts).

Words and expressions that allow Internet users to find your site via a search (SERP). The choice and positioning of these keywords is therefore the major element in the implementation of your communication and visibility strategy on the internet.

Knowledge and skills base
All of the knowledge, know-how and skills that an individual must master in order to gain access to vocational training and enter the world of work. This knowledge and skills are useful in the social, civic and cultural life of the individual.

Key Performance Indicators are used to measure the impact of an action followed by a model defined in advance.

Large language models (LLMs)

Make up a class of foundation models that can process massive amounts of unstructured text and learn the relationships between words or portions of words, known as tokens. This enables LLMs to generate natural-language text, performing tasks such as summarization or knowledge extraction. GPT-4 (which underlies ChatGPT) and LaMDA (the model behind Bard) are examples of LLMs.

Large-scale distribution
Retail system based on a network of supermarkets and other various intermediaries.


Lost Buy Box


Lightning Deal. A type of discount on Amazon that is limited to 4-6 hours of running time.

Potential buyer of a given product or service.

Lead scoring
The practice of calculating and assigning a score to the prospects of the company. The purpose of this operation is to better understand the prospects’ potential, degree of interest in the product / service or their position in the purchasing cycle. The score is used to select targets, establish contact priorities and personalize the marketing action.


Lost Featured Offer. Expected to replace the Lost Buy Box metric in Amazon analytics dashboards in the future.

Liberatory receipt
The receipt in full discharge of liability attests to the training contributions paid by the company to the OPCO. It is issued by the OPCO: to be kept by the company as proof of payment of contributions in the event of an audit.

Length of aisle given to a product and by extension the aisle itself.

Listing Optimisation

Refers to the process of improving the content of a listing to improve its organic ranking in the Amazon search results.

Long Tail
(or Long Tail) is a statistical concept that appears in distributions. The tail symbolizes the amortization of the Gaussian curve (or bell curve) of the statistical distributions. Applied to SEO, it highlights, for example, that many keywords each generating a single visit should not be overlooked in favor of one keyword generating a lot of visits. The sum of the weak keywords can often lead to more visits than a single strong keyword. It is a fact that the star selling products on Amazon site represent a much smaller sales quota than the sum of all the less selling product.


Large Scale Product Launch. A vendor-specific programme where Amazon increases inventory coverage for new items with no return policy but in exchange for advertising investments.

Lump Sum
Fixed fee in negotiations.

Machine learning (ML)

Is a subset of AI in which a model gains capabilities after it is trained on, or shown, many example data points. Machine learning algorithms detect patterns and learn how to make predictions and recommendations by processing data and experiences, rather than by receiving explicit programming instruction. The algorithms also adapt and can become more effective in response to new data and experiences. Modality is a high-level data category such as numbers, text, images, video, and audio.

Mail-order selling
Retail system where the customer orders usually from a catalogue and the goods are shipper directly to them.

Market Basket Analysis
Analysis of products purchased by a customer and relations between them to determine marketing strategies.


Minimum Advertised Price. Used by brands to ensure a product is not sold under a minimum set price (only applicable in the US).

Market place
A space where vendors and buyers can meet, e.g., eBay.

Market share
Used in value (turnover) or volume (number of products sold), it describes the size of a product, brand or store in proportion to its market.


Multi-Channel Fulfillment. A service that allows brands to use Amazon warehouses to store and ship products sold outside of Amazon.


Matching Compensation. Refers to Amazon’s request to support low-margin products with investments to keep them listed in the catalogue.

Techniques for setting up aisles and displaying products.


Merchant Fulfilled. Refers to sellers shipping products directly to the end customer.


Month over Month


Minimum Order Quantity. Describes the minimum amount Amazon needs to order.


Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price

NAM : National Account Manager or KAM (key account Manager)
He negotiates with retailers, he is in charge of developing the company’s brands by negotiating the price of the products, the assortment or even the promotions with the medium and large stores.

Natural referencing
Synonym for SEO – technique for the optimization of the webpages of a site in order to obtain the best positions in the natural results of the search engines.


Non-Disclosure Agreement


The ratio between your average selling price and cost price, which also considers any accruals and C-COGS a vendor has with Amazon. Calculated as (Average Selling Price – Average Cost per Unit + Contra-COGS) ÷Average Selling Price .

Net Receipts

Expresses the volume received by Amazon multiplied by the vendor’s cost price.

It’s creating, positioning and exchanging links. Netlinking plays a preponderant role in natural referencing but also in shadier practices like Google Bombing. A good Netlinking would be for example a Webmaster exchanging links with complementary sites having a high PageRank or TrustRank index.

Niche Market
Very segmented market with little potential in terms of volume.

Nielsen Holdings plc is a global measurement and data analytics company providing a complete vision of the world on consumers and markets.


New Item Setup. Describes the listing process of a product.


New product. Refers to a newly listed item.


Non-Replenishable. An item that cannot be restocked.


Reflects whether an ad-attributed purchase was made by an existing or new customer.


Order to Cash. Describes the process that entails all aspects of handling the sale to Amazon. This includes shipping goods to Amazon, creating invoices, receiving payments, and reporting on the end-to-end process.



Ocapiat is the Operator of Competences (OPCO) for the Agricultural Cooperation, the Agriculture, the Fishing, the Food-processing Industry and the Territories.

(Offre de remboursement) Refund offer: partial or total deferred rebate granted to consumers who request it, based on proof of purchase.

Outdoor advertising, a type of advertising that reaches potential customers while they are outside their homes.

Opérateur de Compétences. The OPCOs have replaced the OPCAs since April 1, 2019 and provide funding for apprenticeship contracts, provide technical support to the branches to help them implement certifications, and support small and medium-sized enterprises in training. Since April 1, 2019, 11 skills operators (OPCOs), into which 329 professional branches are divided, have replaced the 20 approved parity collecting operators (OPCAs).

OPCO 2i is the inter-industry skills operator. It brings together 32 branches divided into 11 Joint Professional Sections (SPP):

  • Energy and Energy Services
  • Chemicals
  • Petroleum
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Plastics, Nautical and Composites
  • Paper and Cardboard
  • Furniture, Wood, Toys and Childcare
  • Materials for construction and industry, Glass
  • Metallurgy and Recycling
  • Rubber
  • Creative and technical industries, Fashion and Luxury

The skills operator (OPCO) for local companies has been approved on the basis of the constitutive agreement signed by the inter-professional employers’ organizations U2P and CPME and the five employee trade union confederations (CFDT, CFE-CGC, CFTC, CGT, CGT-FO). It relies on the skills and know-how of the network of OPCA PEPSS/ACTALIANS and AGEFOS PME and is deployed throughout France (including DROM). The OPCO of the Proximity Companies covers the companies entering the field of application of 54 professional branches as well as the companies which do not come under a National Collective Agreement (CCN) or a national agreement of branch on the training, whose principal activity falls under the field of intervention of the OPCO.
It covers various fields of activity:

  • Craft industry
  • Liberal professions
  • Local services

A common point: PROXIMITY

OPCO Mobilités
OPCO Mobilités is the skills operator for the mobility sector, mandated by the social partners of 22 branches and RATP to implement and apply their training and GPEC policies.

OPCO Santé
The OPCO Santé is intended to bring together the common professions in the health, social and medico-social sectors.

Opcommerce is the “Alternance-Compétences” partner of companies in the commerce sector, i.e. 19 professional branches. Approved by the State, it accompanies, in proximity, the performance of companies, contributes to the professional evolution of employees and favors the professional integration of young people in the commerce sector thanks to work-study training (apprenticeship contract and professionalization contract).

Open Source
Software whose code is accessible and redistributable. I might be downloaded for free.

The act of voluntarily subscribing to a mailing list. -active opt-in: the internet user must voluntarily check a box (or scroll through a drop-down menu) so that the data can be used subsequently for commercial purposes. – passive opt-in: a box is already pre-checked (or a drop-down menu already present) on the affirmative answer.

Opt-in, opt-out
Methods of collecting personal data from Internet users.

Action which consists in unsubscribing from a mailing list. – active opt-out: the internet user must check a box (or select a drop-down menu) so as not to receive a message later. – The passive opt-out: when registering or subscribing to a service, the Internet user is automatically registered without having the opportunity to change his choice. He can only unsubscribe later.

Ordered Revenue

Refers to the orders placed by end customers that have not yet shipped by Amazon. It’s based on the average selling price at the time of the order. Calculated as: ASP * Volume Ordered.

Ordered Volume

Equals Ordered Revenue ÷ ASP.

Traffic from search engines. The value of the medium is: Organic.

Organic traffic
Indicator of the number of visitors opening a website from search engines.


Out Of Stock




Over the Counter


One-Time Password


Amazon estimates with a 70% probability that future weekly customer demand will be at or below this value.


Amazon estimates with an 80% probability that future weekly customer demand will be at or below this value.


Amazon estimates with a 90% probability that future weekly customer demand will be at or below this value.


Profit and Loss

Pages per visit
Number of pages viewed in succession, i.e., during the same visit session.

Number of pages viewed over a given period.

Paid referencing
Technique that involves the purchase of sponsored links on search engines, social networks or websites with a large audience in order to make advertisements visible to users who are likely to be interested.

Paid traffic
The action of paying search engines to show a website in specific areas of the SERP.

Parent ASIN

Describes the ASIN under which the variants of a product are grouped together. The parent ASIN could be a chocolate bar, while the child ASINs are the flavour variations (e.g., dark/white/milk flavour).


Product Costs of Goods Sold. Expresses the quantity sold multiplied by the cost price of a vendor. PCOGs equal Shipped COGS in Vendor Central.


Product Detail Page. The webpage a shopper views when browsing an item on Amazon.


Perfect Inbound. Describes the number of shipments that Amazon fulfilment centres can process quickly, without delays or problems.


Perfect Inbound Defect Rate. Measures the number of inbound defects as a % of all received units at Amazon fulfilment centres.


Pan European Inbound Consolidation Service. A logistics programme that helps vendors reduce the number of fulfilment centers they need to supply.

Product Information Management – processes and technologies for managing information describing products as seen by the customers.

Private Lable.

Distribution of buyer cohorts according to their purchase volume: small/medium/large (petit moyen grand).


Point of Contact


Proof of Delivery


Private Label. Describes products sold by Amazon under their own brand name but made by other manufacturers.


Price Protection Agreement. Protects Amazon against a reduction in value of the units currently on hand and in transit.

Carrefour’s automated preparation platform for individual orders, which delivers the dirve, pedestrian drive. There are 4 of them in France in October 2020.


Pure Profit Margin. Describes the ratio between the average selling price and cost price. In other words, it is the amount of money Amazon makes from the sale of a product before costs. Calculated as (Average Selling Price – Average Cost per Unit) ÷ Average Selling Price.


Procurable Product OOS. Describes the out of stock (OOS) rate on all products that are procurable. Procurable Product OOS = OOS Glance Views (GVs) on Procurable ASINS / Total GVs.


Product Price Variation. When the cost price of a vendor invoice does not match the cost price of the Amazon purchase order.


Product Quantity Variation. When the product quantity of a vendor invoice does not match the number of received items at the Amazon warehouse.


Planned Replenishment

PR Sculpting
It’s the optimization of the ranking juice. One of the main parameters in the calculation of the ranking of a page is the presence of links and relevance, hence the idea to favor some over others.

Price cut
The action of reducing a price.

Price Drop
Significant difference (and dissuasive if increasing) between the price of a product and the average price in its category.

Pricing strategy. Dynamic Pricing: policy of adjusting prices according to changes in demand or competitors’ prices.


Amazon’s subscription service for free delivery, which also entails services like Amazon Music and Video.

Rules defined for displaying a website report.

Professional branch
Sector of activity, the scope of which is defined by a collective agreement. In a professional branch, an OPCA can be designated to receive the funds relating to the participation in the professional training of companies.

Project management
The application of skills, know-how, methods and processes to achieve specific objectives.

Productivity from labor

Is the ratio of GDP to total hours worked in the economy. Labor productivity growth comes from increases in the amount of capital available to each worker, the education and experience of the workforce, and improvements in technology.

Prompt engineering

refers to the process of designing, refining, and optimizing input prompts to guide a generative AI model toward producing desired (that is, accurate) outputs.

Potential Client.

In the context of a promotional game or contest, the provision refers to the entirety of the prizes to win.

Pure Player
100% online company connecting supply and demand, employing a reduced staff.


Perceptual image quality


purchase quantity variances


First Quarter (Jan-Mar)


Second Quarter (Apr-Jun)


Third Quarter (Jul-Sep)


Fourth Quarter (Oct-Dec)


Fifth Quarter. Refers to a hectic first quarter right after the Christmas period (colloq.).


Quality Assurance


Quarterly Business Review

The recognition of a professional qualification implies one of the following three modalities:

  • Registration in the RNCP (Répertoire National des Certifications Professionnelles)
  • Mention in a classification of a national collective agreement (CCN) of the branch
  • Registration on a list drawn up by the National Joint Commission for Employment and Vocational Training (CPNEFP) of a professional branch

Qualiopi is a certification awarded by the French government to training providers. It ensures the quality of the training distributed.

In social media lingo, reach is the number of users a publication can reach.

Reassurance messaging
The act of reassuring a potential buyer in order to overcome their hesitation.

Red thread
Communication line throughout the year without highlighting a specific commercial offer (examples: on the automotive sector, possibility of communicating on all models without a commercial offer or in retail, possibility of highlighting all products without a specific promotion). The interest of this type of communication is mainly to maintain a continuous presence on the Internet, and therefore to maintain a share of voice against competitors in the same sector.

indicates the result in absolute or percentage terms of a promotional or sales operation.

Traffic coming from a third-party site (partners, directory, etc.).

Referring sites
Sites referring to another site.

RegEx (Regular Expression)
Computer script for isolating regular subsets.

Responsive design
The responsive web design includes Internet content design techniques to offer self-adaptive content based on what interface is used by the visitor.

(reseller): retail actor.

It is an advertising practice which consists in targeting an individual who has visited a website without making a purchase or converting to the brand.

Return On Advertising Spend – tool used to evaluate the effectiveness of digital marketing campaigns by linking costs and revenues.

Acronym for Return On Investment. It’s the return rate any action. If you hear remarks such as: “No point in wasting time on that keyword, the ROI would be too low”, it means that the investment would not be profitable.


Removal of Offer. Refers to the removal of the Buy Box, while active Subscribe and Save customers will continue to receive orders.

Research Online, Purchase Offline: online research activity before visiting a store.


Recommended Retail Price

Retail service provider.

RTM: Route to Market
Document detailing the goal(s) to be achieved. It usually includes the timeline, principles, and values to be respected.

Software as a Service is a concept consisting in providing services or computer software through the Web.


Strategic Account Services. A programme that gives sellers access to a designated Amazon account manager to help them increase sales and optimise their business.


Seller Central. The admin interface used to market and sell products directly to Amazon customers.

SCA Leclerc
The E.Leclerc centers are supplied in a compulsory way, by central buying groups distributed by geographical zones, there are sixteen of them (Scacentre, Scanormandie, Scachap, Scarmor, Socamil, Scaso, Socara, Scalandes, Scaouest, Scapest, Scapartois, Scapalsace, Socamaine, Scadif, Lecasud, Scapnor).

Ability of a site to withstand the increasing load of visitor traffic.

Script Asynchrone
JavaScript function installed and executed in the HTML header of a page. The Asynchronous scripts enable faster page loading.

It is a way of applying agile thinking by giving importance to teamwork and iterative product progression. Its goal is to deliver new features regularly, every two to four weeks. Scrum can be associated with other agile methods such as Kanban


Sales Discount. Describes amounts related to promotional activities that Amazon conducts at the customer checkout.


Selective Distribution Agreement. Used by suppliers to maintain control over the resale of its products by only selling to distributors meeting specific criteria.


Selective Distribution Network. Describes the distributors that are part of an SDA.

Search engine
It is a tool that automatically references web pages on the Internet using a program called spider or robot.

Self-attention, sometimes called intra-attention

Is a mechanism that aims to mimic cognitive attention, relating different positions of a single sequence to compute a representation of the sequence.

Sub-set of statistical data.

Step of a marketing strategy that consists in breaking down a target population into homogeneous and addressable groups.

Acronym for Search Engine Marketing, i.e. Sponsored Links.

Acronym for Search Engine Optimisation. This acronym is commonly used to speak of referencing or positioning.

Acronym for Search Engine Result Page. Better to be included in the top positions!

Session Duration
Amount of time spent on each page of a website.


Seller Fulfiled Prime. Refers to sellers that ship products from their own warehouses and comply with Amazon’s strict SLA.

Shipped COGS

This metric is based on the cost price of a product at the time of Amazon purchasing it, multiplied by the shipped volume during the selected time period. Expressed as a dollar value and calculated as: Vendor Cost Price * Volume Shipped (to end customers). Shipped COGS equals Amazon PCOGs.

Shipped Revenue

The revenue Amazon makes by shipping a vendor’s products. It’s based on the average selling price to the end customer at the time of shipment and multiplied by the sold volume during the selected time period. Calculated as: ASP * Volume Shipped (to end customers).

Shipped Volume

Equals shipped revenue ÷ ASP.

Price comparison robots.

Someone who shops, synonym for client.

Activity of locating a product in store before ordering online.

Silos Organisation
It is used to describe the isolation occurring between employees or department within a company.

Ships In Own Container. One of Amazon’s requirements for packaging. According to the rule, any item must be shippable without additional packaging.

All the knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills used in the exercise of a trade or professional activity.

Skills assessment
The skills assessment allows the analysis of one’s professional and personal skills, aptitudes and motivations in support of a professional development project and, if necessary, training.

Skills development plan

As of January 1, 2019 the skills development plan replaces the training plan. The plan sets out the actions that a company wishes to implement for its employees. Annual or multi-year, it may include Training Actions, Skills Assessment and/or Validation of Acquired Experience (VAE), corresponding to the needs of the company. In principle, the actions in the plan are carried out during working hours, but under certain conditions they can be implemented “outside working hours”.

SKU: Stock Keeping Unit
It is a unique code that is assigned to a product in order to identify it and track inventory.


Service Level Agreement



Small and Light. Fulfilment programme that results in low shipping costs for qualified products that fit into an envelope.


Subscribe and Save. Amazon’s loyalty programme to entice customers to make repeat purchases of replenishable products on its marketplace in exchange for a small discount.

Literally “indexing spam”, spamdexing corresponds to a set of Black Hat techniques intended to deceive search engines in order to unfairly obtain a good positioning. These include among other cloaking, misuse of doorway pages, etc.

The action to send bulk sending unwanted emails.


Sell-out Agreement. Margin funding for Amazon that is granted as a percentage or $ amount per sold item to end customers.


Service Provider Network

Unlawful appropriation of IP address.


Serial Shipping Container Code. External Container ID to label cartons to be sent to Amazon, which can be passed via Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).


Sell Through Rate. Calculated as the number of units shipped compared to the number of units at Amazon at the start of the period, plus any units received during the same time period. Sell Through Rate = (Shipped units – customer returns) / (On hand units + received units).


A curated brand store, typically paid for by vendors.

Structured data

Are tabular data (for example, organized in tables, databases, or spreadsheets) that can be used to train some machine learning models effectively.

Subscribe and save
Renewed delivery of a selected product for a given period on Amazon. The site offers a reduction for the use of this service on 5 different products.

Media investment/total of sales.

it is an element used to gather data about a website, such as on-site behaviour It is inserted into the source code of the page.

Tagging plan
Operation of organizing, structuring and naming all e-marketing campaigns for optimal consistency Web Analytics data reports.

Selection of the population segments to which a product will be addressed.

Science of grouping and organizing products into categories according to different criteria.

Technology RFID
Used for the first time during the Second World War for aircraft recognition, RFID, Radio Frequency Identification finds new applications. This solution allows traceability of the remote transmission of information contained in products and articles by using a chip and a radio antenna.

Testing phase
Testing a website before launching it online.

Thank You Page
Page generated when a visitor fills out a form on a web page.

Third-Party Seller

Describes sellers trading goods on Amazon’s marketplace without selling these items to Amazon first.


Terms of Service

Actions intended to measure the profile of the visitor to a site, his journey, their centers of interest, their origin in the network, etc. in order to offer custom content.

Traffic source
Site from which the user comes before visiting another site.

Indicator of the number of visits to a website.

Training contract
Il contratto di formazione è un contratto di diritto privato stipulato tra un’azienda e un ente di formazione per la realizzazione di un corso di formazione; può essere sostituito da un buono d’ordine o da una fattura; rimane obbligatorio per le azioni realizzate nell’ambito del contratto di professionalizzazione ed è fortemente raccomandato per le azioni non standardizzate.

Training organization (or provider)
A training organization, or training provider, is a natural or legal person who provides professional training. The organization must have an activity number issued by the DIRECCTE. This is to be able to establish training agreements allowing to be present on the professional training market.


Are a relatively new neural network architecture that relies on self-attention mechanisms to transform a sequence of inputs into a sequence of outputs while focusing its attention on important parts of the context around the inputs. Transformers do not rely on convolutions or recurrent neural networks.

Technical automation potential

Refers to the share of the worktime that could be automated. We assessed the technical potential for automation across the global economy through an analysis of the component activities of each occupation. We used databases published by institutions including the World Bank and the US Bureau of Labor Statistics to break down about 850 occupations into approximately 2,100 activities, and we determined the performance capabilities needed for each activity based on how humans currently perform them. Use cases are targeted applications to a specific business challenge that produces one or more measurable outcomes. For example, in marketing, generative AI could be used to generate creative content such as personalized emails. Unstructured data lack a consistent format or structure (for example, text, images, and audio files) and typically require more advanced techniques to extract insights.


Ultra Fast Track (UFT). The percentage of time that an ASIN can be shipped to the customer from a fulfilment centre, versus the selection Amazon intended to carry.

As a social cohesion OPCO, Uniformation supports those who are committed to supporting people at all stages of their lives: an everyday economy that meets societal needs. Social cohesion is the cement of a society where everyone has a place, where everyone is welcomed, and where everyone can act according to their needs and aspirations. An inclusive vision of society sought by Uniformation’s social partners. 22 professional branches cover this perimeter. Companies, associations, cooperatives, social organizations, foundations, trade unions, political parties, works councils and social and economic committees, religious movements and associations… can all benefit from Uniformation’s services as long as they are not attached to a professional branch hosted by another Opco.


Universal Product Code. 12 numeric digits that are uniquely assigned to a product item for tracking it in-store.

Up selling
Attempt to sell a product from a higher range than the product viewed or purchased.


User Experience

Validation of Acquired Experience. A process that allows for the recognition, through an evaluation process, of knowledge and skills acquired during professional or extra-professional experiences (volunteer, union…) in order to obtain a certification (diploma, title for professional purposes, certificate of professional qualification – CQP) registered in the National Directory of Professional Certifications.


Products available in different colours, sizes, and forms, grouped on a detail page.


Value Added Tax


Vendor Central. The admin interface used by manufacturers and distributors who work directly with Amazon as a first-party vendor (1P)

New name of Vente Privée.


Describes brands that sell directly to Amazon instead of to end customers. Amazon places the orders and takes care of pricing and inventory management.


Vendor Flex. A supply chain programme through which vendors supply products to end customers out of their warehouse.


Vendor Funded Managed Coupons. Set up and managed by Amazon’s Subscribe and Save team.

It was a free application that allowed users to create short videos called vines.


Vendor Improvement Plan. Outlines the metrics that the AVS Brand Specialist is targeting to improve with a vendor.


Volume Incentive Rates. Refers to rebates that are granted either as a fixed or tiered percentage. They incentivise Amazon to buy additional volume from vendors.

Site consultation session (sequence pages viewed on a site).

The Voice Over Internet Protocol allows telephone calls to be transmitted over the Internet. The voice is transformed into digital signals and routed in data packets to the recipient.


(also: Vendor Powered Voucher, or VPV) – A type of discount vendors and sellers can offer to customers. Customers redeem the vouchers on the product detail page.

A temporary or permanent waiver request to the banks.

Warehouse Deam

Used or returned items sold at a discount to Amazon customers to prevent waste and reduce the liquidation of imperfect products.

Web service
Application allowing data exchange via XML.

White Hat
Set of good SEO practices for increasing the visibility for spiders (or bot) of page information.


Week over Week

X-Channel Management

Refers to brands selling their products across multiple Amazon channels (e.g., Amazon Core, Fresh, Go, etc.).

File format, formatted using tags (e.g. data).


Year to Date


Year over Year

Zero Inventories

Refers to an inventory control mechanism that eliminates any waste due to built-up inventory levels. Sellers stock only the items they need and intend to sell within a certain time period.

Amazon lexicon. Selling 1P means selling TO Amazon ,  you can use Vendor central Plateform and the products are “Ships from and sold by”. Selling 3P means selling ON the marketplace , you use Seller central platform. If you choose Amazon’s 3P model, you maintain control of your products and your pricing. You decide if you are going to fulfill your products through Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA), Fulfillment by Merchant (FBM), or Seller Fulfilled Prime (SFP). If you choose FBA, Amazon takes care of picking, packing, shipping, and returns.


Third Party Logistics


Third Party Seller